摘要：Objective To observe the cardiopulmonary pathological changes and the cell ultrastructure at different periods of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD) by means of light microscopy and electron microscopy, and to explore the damage degree of the cardiopulmonary tissues , and to analyze their correlation. Methods Thirty-two healthy male SPF Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups ; blank group (A) , COPD group ( B ) , acute exacerbation COPD group ( C ) , COPD combined with corpulmonale group ( D). The COPD models were established by passive smoking with LPS being dropped into the trachea ; based on the model of COPD, acute exacerbation COPD models were made by dropping LPS into trachea again ; COPD combined with corpulmonale models were established by injecting the chloride -ferric into the caudal vein. Then the cardiopulmonary pathological changes and the changes of cell ultrastructure at different periods of COPD were observed. Results The results of light microscope examination showed that eosinophilic changes , fat cell hyperplasia,mesenchymal rarefaction and other pathological changes appeared in group B ,C and D in turn,the lung tissues occurred peribronchial chronic inflammatory cell infiltration , necrotizing inflammation in bronchus , pulmonary mesenchymal congestive hyperplasia , focal necrotizing inflammation of lung tissue , pulmonary congestion, etc. The examination results of electron microscope showed that cardiopulmonary structure at different periods of COPD appeared different degree changes ,and the damage degree aggravated in turn. Conclusion With the progress of the disease ,the damage of lung tissue at different periods of the COPD is more and more obvious , and myocardial tissue appears different degree damages ,and there is a certain correlation between them.%目的 通过光镜、电镜观察wistar大鼠COPD模型不同时期心肺组织的结构变化,探讨COPD各时期的心肺组织损害程度,对其进行相关性分析.方法 将32只健康雄性Wistar 大鼠随机分为4组,空白组(A)、COPD组(B)、COPD急性加重组(C),COPD合并肺心病组(D),通过气管内滴入脂多糖和被动吸烟的方法建立COPD大鼠模型,在COPD的模型气管滴入脂多糖建立急性加重模型,在COPD的基础上尾静脉注射三氯化铁建立COPD合并肺心病模型.观察COPD不同时期wistar大鼠的心肺组织病理变化及细胞超微结构改变.结果 在光镜下B、C、D组心肌细胞依次出现嗜酸性变,脂肪细胞增生,间质疏松等病变;肺组织依次出现支气管周围慢性炎细胞侵润,支气管内坏死性炎症,肺间质充血增生,肺组织局灶性坏死性炎症,肺瘀血等病变.电镜下COPD不同时期心肺结构呈不同程度的改变,损伤程度程度依次加重.结论 COPD不同时期随着病情的进展大鼠模型的肺组织损害越趋明显,心肌组织也出现不同程度的损害,二者有一定的相关性.