摘要：企业间结成联盟进行技术合作,共同创造知识已经成为一种趋势。现有文献对企业联盟的研究很多,但是对联盟内知识产权问题的研究却一直未得到应有的重视。在梳理已有研究的基础上,从联盟的生命历程角度系统地分析了联盟初期谈判阶段、运行管理阶段以及终止分配阶段存在的知识产权问题,进一步剖析不同密切程度的企业间技术联盟所面临的知识产权问题及应对措施。%It is a trend for enterprises to join an alliance to make technical cooperation and create knowledge to- gether. There exist lots of studies on the enterprise alliance in the existing literature, but the research on the in- tellectual property issues in the alliance has not received due attention. This paper, based on the analysis of the previous studies, focuses on the intellectual property problems encountered at different stages of the alliance＇s life cycle： early negotiation stage, operation/management stage, and termination/distribution stage. Further- more, the paper makes an analysis on these problems among enterprises with different cooperation level in the technical alliances. The measures of coping with them are presented as well.
摘要：专利权作为私权,须明定其权利归属,同一个发明创造只能授予一项专利权,世界通行的做法采先申请原则,对最先提出专利申请的人以优先取得专利的权利,而美国一直以来采先发明原则。但是,受国际专利调和化运动影响,美国国会开始逐步努力转向采先申请原则,此次美国专利法变革即为其最终结果,尽管学界对于此次变革的前途争议不停,但从整体上来说,采先申请原则相较于先发明原则仍有其进步之处。%Patent right, as a type of private rights, must has its ownership. Each invention can only apply for one patent right. While the popular practice in the world follows ＂application first＂ principle, which renders the per- son patent right for specific invention who applies first, America has always been adopting ＂invention first＂ prin- ciple. However, affected by international patent harmonization movement, U.S. congress is beginning to pursue ＂application first＂ principle, marked by American patent right reform as its final results. Despite unceasing aca- demic disputes over the future of this reform, preference to application first principle instead of invention first princiole marks certain nro~re~ in an n,.rr~r~ll
摘要：德国中小企业专利行动是一项专门帮助中小企业使用专利的政策,为中小企业在创新过程中提供与专利有关的资金补贴和服务,其政策施行方式和实施主体对我国有很强的借鉴意义。我国应加强政府与科技中介机构的合作,提升科技中介机构的知识产权能力,使其服务中小企业创新的全过程。%Germany＇s small-medium enterprises （SMEs） patent action is a policy specialized in helping the SMEs take advantage of intellectual property. This public policy provides patent-related subsidies and services for the SMEs in their innovation process. The enforcement mode and subject of the policy may provide significant reference for our country. We should promote China＇s technology agencies＇ intellectual property capabilities, strengthen their cooperation with our government, and help them provide services for SMEs in their whole course of innovation.
摘要：随着＂种菜难赚钱,买菜不廉价＂怪圈的出现,农产品供应链纵向协作关系问题引起相关学者的重视。从双边专用性投资的角度进行研究,发现农户与下游买方间进行双边专用性投资可以通过降低合作中的机会主义行为、提高双方的信任水平以及促进关系学习三个方面提高农户的合作绩效。双边专用性投资有利于解决农户和下游买方的合作问题,是维护农户利益的有效措施。%With the emergence of paradoxical phenomenon ＂ non-profitable vegetable growing, high vegetable price＂, vertical cooperative relationship of farm produce supply chain arouses the attention from related scholars.From bilateral specific investment perspective, it is found that bilateral specific investment between farmers and downstream buyers can improve farmers＇ cooperation performance through reducing opportunistic behaviors in co- operation, raising trust level of both parties and promoting relational learning. Bilateral specific investment is conducive to the settlement of problems emerging from cooperation between farmers and downstream buyers. It is an effective way to protect the interests of farmers.
摘要：As the element cycle is necessary due to the scarcity of resources, the market price of scarce resources is not only affected by up variables and side variables, but also by under variables. The article constructs a dia- gram of labor-features space, and introduces the future factor, the next variable, into the decision on the current price equilibrium. The article claims that the current price equilibrium is determined both by ＂the total supplyfecting the future supply＂ should be introduced. Therefore, in resource scarcity society, the design of social mechanisms and the extraction of social laws should be exolored in a larger system.%资源稀缺下的市场定价,由于要素循环是必需的,故市场价格在受上变量和侧变量影响的同时,还受下变量的影响。通过构造劳动力—功能空间图,把表征为下变量的未来因子引入对均衡价格的决定中,并认为当期均衡价格由＂未来商品供给和当前商品供给生成的总供给＂与＂未来商品需求和当前商品需求生成的总需求＂联合决定,由此引入影响未来供给的降解率因子。因此,资源稀缺社会里,社会机制的设计和社会法则的提取应放在更大系统内探究。
摘要：An academic viewpoint maintains that, freedom outlook in western ideological history can be ap- proached from two perspectives： ＂principle of seeking benevolence＂ put forth by Grecian philosopher Plato; ＂ Salvation concept＂ based on Christian ＂Grace＂. These two outlooks are antithetical and both have their deficien- cies. Therefore, an inte form of freedom outlook grated unity of them based on logical and dialectical thinking will help realize the highest in western ideological history.%学术界有一种观点认为,可以从两条线索去理解西方思想史中的自由观：以古希腊哲学家柏拉图为代表建立了＂求善原则＂的自由观,而基督教神学则从＂恩典＂出发建立了＂拯救概念＂的自由观,两种自由观构成了一种＂张力关系＂。即使上述观点是成立的,两种自由观也都存在弊端,因此,在思辨逻辑的基础上实现两种自由观的综合统一是西方自由观的最高形态。
摘要：“包容性增长”的研究在我国已成燎原之势,在各界广泛认可和讨论中,逐渐形成自己的解释逻辑、建构路径和话语体系。为提升“包容性增长＂研究的品质,推动研究向深度进展,更好地解决实际问题,有必要重新审视”包容性增长“研究兴起的背景,概括学人关注的焦点分布,理顺研究思路的线性轨迹,归纳研究视域的平面铺陈,总结学术框架的立体构造,反思研究的问题与不足。%Discussion on Low Carbon law system, it is very necessary on China＇s current reality environment un- derstanding and analysis for Low Carbon. Social survey is related to legal norms and social reality of the most commonly used method, is applied to the research on the Low Carbon law system. It is not only legal methodology breakthrough, at the same time reflects the law of a kind of rational consciousness, but also for low carbon legis- lation reason and people＇s participation in legislation provides a scientific and effective means. Based on the re- search on the Low Carbon law system, focusing on social survey was applied in the process of scheme design, questionnaire design and some problems should be paid attention to.
摘要：城乡二元结构至今仍然是我国社会的主要矛盾和顽症之一，从问题的提出上升为执政党的执政方略倾注了学者、社会公众以及政治家的智慧和心血。包容性发展理论的提出为城乡二元结构的破解提供了新的战略方向，而转移型策略、吸纳型策略、解制型策略是当前的策略选择。%Dual structure of urban-rural development remains among main contradictions of today＇s China. Due to joint wisdom and. efforts devoted by scholars, the public and politicians, it has now been raised to a height that exerts certain influence on governance strategy of ruling party. The emergence of inclusive growth theory offers new strategic direction for disintegrating urban-rural dual structure. Transfer strategy, absorption strategy and dis- integration strategy combine to serve as strategic alternatives for the time being.
摘要：Community care service, originating from Britain, exerts a subtle influence on the ＂home- and com- munity-based services for the elderly＂ greatly promoted in recent China. Community care service in Britain has gone through the change from care in the community to care by the community, and in nature, it has also changed from social welfare to market behavior. It is expected that the analysis of the important components of community care service in Britain can make a reference to the indigenization of home- and community-based services for the elderly, and to the building-up of a senior service model in China. Besides, it is expected to en- lighten the Chinese social welfare and social services, inspiring a benign connection between the elderly services and social work as a profession.%源于英国的＂社区照顾＂对我国近年来大力推行的＂居家养老服务＂有着潜移默化的影响。英国的社区照顾经历了＂在社区照顾＂到＂由社区照顾＂的转变,性质也由社会福利转变为市场行为。通过对英国社区照顾重要环节的分析,希望为我国居家养老服务的本土化过程乃至养老模式的建构做出参考,在社会福利与服务的范畴予以启示,并在我国的安老服务与社会工作实务做衔接的方面起到借鉴作用。
摘要：大部制改革是深化行政管理体制改革的重大举措,其改革目标包括三个层次,即初级目标是实现政府职能的有机统一,中级目标是建立法治政府,根本目标是服务型政府的形成。通过目标定位,明确大部制改革的方向,引导我国大部制改革健康有序地进行,从而为实现行政体制改革的总体目标奠定基础。%As an important step in deepening reform of administrative system, super-ministry reform assumes the fallowing three levels of goals： realization of integrated unity of governmental functions, establishment of law- based government, and formation of service-oriented government. We get a clear sense of the direction for super ministry reform through goals setting, so as to guide a healthy and orderly super ministry reform in China and lay a foundation for realizing the general goal of administrative system reform.
摘要：Administrative public prosecution refers to administrative lawsuits filed by procuratorial organs. To es- tablish administrative public persecution system is not only one of the effective ways to supervise the legality of administrative acts and to protect public interest but also an objective need for the improvement of current admin- istrative 1~ system to roceedings. It is of great significance for the establishment of China＇s administrative public persecution specify procuratorial organ＇s qualification for filing administrative proceedings, define scope of accep- ting cases, and formulate legal proceedings.%行政公诉是由检察机关提起的行政诉讼,建立行政公诉制度既是监督行政机关依法行政、保护公共利益的有效途径之一,也是完善现行行政诉讼制度的客观需要。明确检察机关提起行政公诉的主体资格,界定检察机关提起行政公诉的范围,设立行政公诉的程序对于建构我国行政公诉制度具有重要意义。
摘要：国际能源法的兴起,是国际法发展的新突破。随着时代的发展,国际上对于构建和谐国际能源秩序的需求日益强烈,国际能源法在发展速度上明显加快,并展现出光明的发展前景。可持续发展成为国际能源法的核心理念之一,为其发展注入强大驱动力。国际能源法与国际环境法出现融合趋势,相互促进。此外,国际能源组织对于国际能源法的推动力呈现越来越明显的态势。国际能源公司、非政府组织等非国家实体也正成为推进全球能源合作、促进国际能源法发展的主导力量之一。%The emergence of international energy law marks a new breakthrough in the development of interna- tional law. There is now an increasing demand for a harmonious international energy order, with an obviously ac- celerating pace and a bright future of development for international energy law. Sustainable development as oneof core ideas for International Energy Law provides a powerful driving force for its development. There is a trend for a mutually-promotive relationship between International Energy Law and International Environmental Law. Be- sides, international energy organizations is becoming increasingly supportive the development of International Ener- gy Law. Non-state entities including international energy companies and non-governmental organizations etc also constitute a leading force in promoting global energy cooperation and the development of International Energy Law.
摘要：The previous studies are full of discussions on folk rules. However, when the first written form of folk rules came into being is still a controversial topic. Most scholars tend to claim that the Folk Rule of LU of the Northern Song Dynasty is the first rule in the history. Some scholars think that the first rule has come into being in the Eastern Han Dynasty. Based on the text of the wooden tablet The Rules for Medium-sized Businessmen ex- cavated from No. lO Han Tomb in Fenghuang Mountain of Jiangling in Hubei, this paper analyzes the production level and modes in the Western Han Dynasty, interprets the rules in a new way, and claims that the first rule has appeared in the early Western Han Dynasty%学界对乡规民约的研究已经连篇累牍,但关于成文化的乡规民约何时出现仍颇有争议,大多学者倾向于认为北宋时期出现的《吕氏乡约》为最早的乡规民约,也有学者认为东汉已然出现早期的乡规民约,以1974年在湖北江陵凤凰山十号汉墓中出土的一枚汉景帝初年的《中舨共侍约》的木牍为文本,在分析西汉乡村农业生产水平和方式的基础上,对最早出现的乡规民约提出新的解读,认为成文化的乡规民约早在西汉时期就已经出现了。
摘要：The patent system played an important role when the United States grew to become a dominant power of science and technology. In 2011, the United States carried out the most powerful and comprehensive patent law reform since the establishment of patent system in 1952. The reform is comprehensive, and the changes on patent application and examination mainly include the following seven aspects： first-inventor-to-file principle; absolute novelty standard; grace of the invention disclosure; post-grant review; constraints on foreign priority fil- ings; reexamination and best mode.%专利制度在美国成长为科技大国的过程中始终扮演着重要角色。2011年,美国迎来了自1952年建立专利制度以来的最强劲而全面的专利法改革。此次改革内容宽泛,其中涉及专利申请与审查变化的内容主要包括：＂先申请＂原则、＂绝对＂新颖性审查标准、发明内容披露的宽限条件、授权后审查机制、国外优先权限制、补充审查以及最佳实施例等七个方面。
摘要：列奥·洛文塔尔是法兰克福学派对大众文化研究最广的理论家,然而他的理论却长期得不到应有的重视,这缘于他独特的大众文化观。他从政治、经济、文化等角度批判大众文化,却又通过历史地分析大众文化的产生和发展,表示出对大众文化的同情和理解。这使得他的大众文化立场看起来摇摆不定,但也正因如此,他的大众文化理论更加客观和公允,对中国的大众文化建设更有借鉴意义。%Leo Loewenthal, a theorist of the Frankfurt School, is the person who did the most extensive resear- ches on mass culture in his circle. However, due to his unique idea of mass culture, his theories have not got e- nough attention it deserves for long time. He criticizes mass culture from the perspective of politics, economy and culture. Meanwhile, he shows his sympathy and understanding for mass culture through his historical analysis of its production and development. Therefore, his stance on mass culture swings, and just because of this, his the- ories one mass culture become more objective and impartial, and can surely provide references for Chinese mass- culture construction.
摘要：关系作为一种实践方式和文化特质,无论在日常生活中还是在国家运作中都有着重要的意义。在《礼物、关系学与国家：中国人际关系与主体性建构》一书中,杨美慧教授从一个局外人的眼光,比较系统地研究了中国城市的礼物交换和人际关系,发现中国的＂礼品经济＂和关系网络建构了一种与国家权力相抗衡的非正式权力,对关系资本主义、关系与腐败、关系式人情、女性在关系实践中的角色等方面进行了有益探讨,为我们透析关系运作的逻辑提供了一个别样的视角。%Relations, a mode of practice and cultural characteristic, are of great importance in both daily lile and administration of the state. In Gifts, Favors and Banquets ： The Art of Social Relationships in China, Professor Yang Meihui makes a systematic analysis on the phenomenon of gift exchange and the social relationships in Chi- nese cities from an outsider＇ perspective. She finds that an informal power which can compete with the state pow- er is formed in the ＂gift economy＂ and the net of relationships. She presents a useful study on different aspects, such as crony capitalism, relation between gifts and corruption, human relationships, and the role of females in the practice of relations. It provides us a different kind of perspective when analyzing the logic of relation practice.
摘要：对目前中国低碳现实环境的了解与分析是探讨低碳法律制度安排的前提和基础。将社会调查方法应用到低碳法律制度研究中,不仅是法学方法论的突破,同时体现着法学研究的一种理性自觉,也为低碳立法和人民参与立法提供了一种科学有效的手段。社会调查方法在低碳法律制度研究中的应用包括方案设计、问卷设计、应注意的价值取向以及多种方法的结合等方面。%Discussion on Low Carbon law system, it is very necessary on China＇s current reality environment un- derstanding and analysis for Low Carbon. Social survey is related to legal norms and social reality of the most commonly used method, is applied to the research on the LOw Carbon law system. It is not only legal methodology breakthrough, at the same time reflects the law of a kind of rational consciousness, but also for low carbon legis- lation reason and people＇s participation in legislation provides a scientific and effective means. Based on the re- search on the Low Carbon law system, focusing on social survey was applied in the process of scheme design, questionnaire design and some problems should be paid attention to.
摘要：杨解君教授的《中国行政法的变革之道——契约理念的确立及其展开》一书,解释和回应了契约手段嵌入公法领域所引发的实践和理论问题。针对传统行政权傲慢、低效与腐化的病症,该书作者开出的药方是权力与契约的融通之道。＂契约理念＂演绎出来的平等、自由意志、诚信、义务与责任、和解等行政法新理念,对现代国家的合作行政和公私法融合现象均具有相当的解释力,这势必为行政法学研究提供崭新的议题,也是催生新行政法的思想源泉。%The book Reform of China＇s Administrative Law ： the Establishment and Spread of Contract Idea by professor Yang Jiejun＇s gives answers to the theoretical and practical problems triggered by the contract idea when it was embedded China＇s public law field. To solve the problem of arrogance, low efficiency and the corruption of traditional administrative power, Yang proposes an accommodation of power and contract. There are many interpretations of Contract idea in terms of administrative law, such as equality, free will, faith, duty responsibility and reconciliation, which all have implications to the modern cooperative administration and accommodation of public law and private law. And this will provide ample sources of idea for the new administrative law and researching issues in this field.
摘要：当前我国公共危机频发,给人民生命财产安全带来极大的损害,因此,科学构建公共危机治理体系成为理论研究的现实课题,基于政府组织在公共危机应对过程中表现出的不足,应该让非政府组织（NGO）参与到公共危机治理体系中,非政府组织以其志愿谋公益的精神、能够有效整合应急资源、危机治理的专业化和专门化及较强的行动力等优势应该成为政府公共危机治理的合作伙伴。非政府组织在公共危机的正常阶段、预兆阶段、爆发阶段、恢复阶段可以分别发挥不同的功能,但当前我国的非政府组织参与公共危机治理还存在立法缺失、衔接有缝、自身实力不足、公共信任度不够等问题,需要政府转变观念,科学设计非政府组织参与公共危机治理的途径。%Recently, the frequent public crisis in our country do great harm to the security of people＇s life and security. The scientific construction of public crisis administration system has become the practical task of theoretical research. Due to their willingness to strive for public benefit, the ability of efficiently integrating resources for emergency, the excellent professional capability of managing the crisis, NGO should become the partner of gov- ernment for managing the crisis. NGO can play different roles in the process of public crisis ： normal stage, ominous stage, eruptible stage and recuperative stage. Nowadays, NGO participation in public crisis management faces several problems： such as legislation flaw, application hindrance, strength shortage and public trust inade- quacy. It calls for the government to change concepts and design the scientific route for NGO to Darticipate in the management of public crisis.
摘要：Different kinds of miscues made by EFL learners at different language proficiency levels in their oral reading. There are generally more miscues in accuracy than in fluency. The high proficiency group makes signif- icantly fewer miscues in such aspects of accuracy miscues as sound addition/deletion, stress misplacement, and word mispronunciation than the low proficiency group does, whereas no significant differences are found in such aspects of fluency miscues as repetition, self-modification, and pause misplacement between the two groups. Within the low proficiency group, significant differences are found only between stress misplacement and self- modification, and between word addition/deletion and sound mispronunciation, while within the high proficiency group, a significant difference is found only between sound mispronunciation and self-modification. Important implications are suggested for oral English teaching and learning.%不同水平的英语学习者在朗读中的各类错误方面存在差异。高水平组在准确性错误中的增减音、重音误置、错词方面显著少于低水平组;而在流利性错误中的重复、修补、不当停顿方面,两组之间无显著差异。高水平组中,只有错音和修补有显著区别;低水平组中,只有重音误置和修补、加减词和错音有显著区别。
摘要：China has abundant solar energy resources, with outstanding achievements in the exploitation and utilization of solar energy. However, there still remain some restricting factors to its development. With the present predicaments, the paper proposes that legislation should be prepared to address the systematic utilization of solar energy. Various means should be taken, such as solar photovoltaics, solar water heater, solar thermal genera- tion, to ensure the positive exploitation and further development.%我国太阳能资源丰富,太阳能的开发利用也卓有成效,但其发展存在若干制约。面对太阳能开发利用中的现实困境,需要针对太阳能的不同利用形式包括太阳能光伏发电、太阳能热水器和太阳能热发电等在立法上分别做出相应的制度安排,以促进太阳能的开发利用和良性发展。