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  • 期刊名称:

    The Biological Bulletin

  • 中文名称: 生物通报
  • 刊频: 1.942
  • ISSN: 0006-3185
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  • 机译 两种结肠状血管中的胎脉流动和结肠发育
    • 作者:Blackstone NW;
    • 刊名:The Biological Bulletin
    • 1996年第1期
    摘要:Using field-collected Podocoryne carnea and Hydractinia symbiolongicarpus, ten colonies of each species were produced by sexual crosses and grown from primary polyps to sexual maturity. At comparable stages in the life history, each colony's morphology was measured using digital image analysis, and each colony's gastrovascular flow to three peripheral stolen tips was recorded using video microscopy. Gastrovascular flow to peripheral stolen tips shows very different patterns in the two species. H. symbiolongicarpus exhibits maximal now as a primary polyp, Both the mean and the variance of the flow rate decline by the time of stolonal mat formation. When covering the substratum, gastrovascular flow is low and somewhat more variable than at the time of stolonal mat formation. On the other hand, P. carnea exhibits minimal flow as a primary polyp, At subsequent stages, flow increases monotonically. Thus at the primary polyp stage, H. symbiolongicarpus exhibits a greater rate of now to peripheral stolen tips than P. carnea. The reverse is true at subsequent stages. In general, these results support the hypothesis that higher rates of gastrovascular flow produce runner-like colonies, while lower rates of flow produce sheet-like colonies.
  • 机译 播散古尔冈珊瑚的原位施肥速率
    摘要:Fertilization rates among marine benthic taxa have implicitly been assumed to be uniformly high in most analyses of life history evolution, but in situ fertilization rates during natural spawning events are rarely measured. Fertilization rates of the Caribbean gorgonians Plexaura kuna and Pseudoplexaura porosa were measured at a site in the San Bias Islands, Panama, by collecting eggs downstream of colonies during synchronous spawning events during the summer months in the years 1988-1994. Eggs collected by divers were incubated, and the proportion of eggs that developed was determined. Proportions of eggs developing suggest fertilization rates that vary from 0% to 100%. Monthly means ranged from 0% to 60.4%. Failure of gametes to develop can be attributed to sperm limitation, as eggs collected during spawning had higher fertilization rates if incubated with an excess of sperm. Plexaura kuna fertilization rates were highest during the July spawning events. Fertilization of Plexaura kuna eggs was usually lower during the first two nights of the 4-6 night spawning event. The proportion of eggs being fertilized when collected from a given place and time was highly variable, with one peak in the frequency distribution at or below 20% fertilization, and a second group of samples with greater fertilization rates. High variance in fertilization rates is evident at all levels of analysis: between replicate samples, times within nights, and among nights and months. This variance can be attributed to a combination of the effects of heterogeneity in the water column as gametes are diluted, spawning behavior of the gorgonians, and the current regime. Fertilization rates are often low and may represent a limiting step in recruitment during some years. Low fertilization rates may also be an important component of the life history evolution of these species.
  • 机译 与海葵触角分离的神经细胞的分类
    摘要:Nerve cells from tentacles of the sea anemone Calliactis parasitica were dissociated in 1000 units/ml of collagenase for scanning electron microscopic studies and in 0.125% elastase followed by 12 units/ml of ficin for cell counts using light microscopy. The studies revealed 33 distinguishable neuronal shapes, which were categorized as either sensory cells having an apical cilium or ganglion cells with or without a perikaryal cilium and further subdivided into unipolar, bipolar and multipolar neurons based on the number of processes that extended from the perikaryon. Unipolar sensory cells were characterized by an apical cilium adjacent to the perikaryon and a long, simple or terminally branched axon. Unipolar ganglion cells lacked an apical cilium. Bipolar sensory cells had a neck between the cilium and perikaryon and an oppositely directed axon. Bipolar ganglion cells had isopolar processes or asymmetrical processes, which were simple or complexly branched. One type of bipolar ganglion cell with isopolar processes had a perikaryal cilium. Multipolar sensory cells had a distinct neck between the perikaryon and the cilium and two or more simple or complexly branched processes extending from the triangularly shaped cell body, Multipolar ganglion cells had variously shaped perikarya from which extended three or more short or long processes that were simple or complexly branched. One type of tripolar ganglion cell had a perikaryal cilium. The different types of nerve cells were quantified, and statistical comparisons were made.
  • 机译 大西洋中部脊脊热液通气场中一类新的虾仁虾的视网膜解剖
    摘要:A new species of shrimp (Rimicaris sp.) was recently collected from the Snake Pit hydrothermal vent held on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Until the discovery in 1989 that the deep-sea, hydrothermal vent species, Rimicaris exoculata, possessed a hypertrophied dorsal eye, everyone believed that animals recovered from vent environments were blind, Like R. exoculata, Rimicaris sp., a small orange bresiliid shrimp, has an enlarged dorsal eye specialized for detecting light in a very dim environment instead of the expected compound eye. The individual lenses characteristic of a compound eye adapted for imaging have been replaced in Rimicaris sp, by a smooth cornea underlain by a massive array of photosensitive membrane. The number of ommatidia in this species is about the same as in shrimp species that live at the surface: however, the photoreceptors are larger in the deep-sea species and the shape of the photoreceptors is markedly different. The light-sensitive region of the photoreceptor is much larger than those of other shrimp and the rest of the receptor is much smaller than normal. All screening pigment has moved out of the path of incident light to a position below the retina, and the reflecting pigment cells have adapted to form a bright white diffusing screen between and behind the photoreceptors, The ultrastructure of the microvillar array comprising the rhabdom is typical for decapod crustaceans; however, there is a much greater volume density of rhabdom (80% to 85%) than normal, There is no ultrastructural evidence for cyclic rhabdom shedding or renewal. Rimicaris sp. has apparently adapted its visual system to detect the very dim light emitted from the throats of the black smoker chimneys around which it lives.
  • 机译 捕食者活动状态与捕食气味敏感性之间的关系
    摘要:Predators searching for prey commonly alternate periods of endogenous locomotory activity with rest. We examined the effects of activity state on behavioral responses to prey odor by predatory blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) and spiny lobsters (Panulirus interruptus). All animals to be tested were placed individually in large seawater tanks (1.5-m diameter) outdoors, where they were assayed for their responses. Initial experiments were conducted at night, the period of greatest normal endogenous activity, in either moonlight or dim, far-red illumination. Prey odor was presented to crabs and lobsters as they either spontaneously walked or rested (for 15-30 min) between locomotory bouts. Only walking animals significantly responded; they either turned towards the site of odor delivery or probed the substratum with chelae and legs. An additional experiment was conducted by presenting a purified prey attractant (ATP) to spiny lobsters. Remarkably, ATP was 498 times more potent in evoking response from walking animals than from resting ones. Neither the duration (15-30 min compared with 4-8 h) nor the timing (night compared with day) of the rest period influenced the sensitivity of the behavioral response. On the basis of our current results, chemical stimuli appear principally to modulate searching by predators already aroused rather than to initiate foraging or feeding from the quiescent state. Significantly, whenever experiments restrict the activity of freely ranging animals, determinations of chemosensory-stimulated behavior may substantially overestimate the concentrations needed to evoke responses.
  • 机译 少年鱿鱼(LOLIGO OPALESCENS)的足癣预体发育
    摘要:Copepods are the major prey of juvenile squid, and small species of squid such as Loligo opalescens face a great challenge in catching these erratically moving crustaceans. We studied the ontogeny of copepod predation in laboratory-reared animals and found that mastery of copepod capture develops progressively, starting shortly after hatch with strong attacks of a simple type. Modifications of the initial basic attack lead to more specialized strategies that effectively extend the range of capture to both longer and shorter distances. This progression culminates, by approximately 40 days post-hatching, in adult-like prey capture behavior involving tentacle extension and retraction. Squid raised exclusively on easily captured Artemia nauplii and introduced to a copepod diet 40 days after hatching displayed only basic attack behavior, characteristic of very young squid. All of these attacks were unsuccessful, and very few of these animals survived the transition. Copepod capture thus appears to be a skill that must be acquired in an experience-dependent manner early in post-hatching life.
  • 机译 日本海葵AIPTASIOMORPHA SP(ANTHOZOA,ACTINIARIA)的核型
    • 作者:Fukui Y;
    • 刊名:The Biological Bulletin
    • 1996年第1期
    摘要:In the Anthozoa, only one karyological study has been performed, namely, a study of the coral Goniopora lobata (2n = 28) by a ''squash'' method (1), and no information about the chromosomes of a sea anemone has been presented apart from a recent preliminary report of the diploid chromosome number and the complement of chromosomes of Haliplanella lineata (= H. luciae) (2n = 32), which were examined by an air-drying method (2). Morphological details of the chromosomes were not provided.
  • 机译 INTERSEX RED CLAW螯虾,CHERAX QUADRICARINATUS(VON MARTENS)-具前玻璃体卵巢功能性苹果
    摘要:Intersex individuals, possessing both male and female genital openings, were assessed in two groups-7 and 19 months old-of Australian red claw crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus). All intersex individuals investigated were functional males, as suggested by their male-like morphology and the presence of testes, sperm ducts, androgenic glands, and viable spermatozoa. When an ovary was present in an intersex individual from either group, the gonadosomatic index, the diameter of the oocytes, and the ovarian cytosolic polypeptide profile were similar to those of immature, pre-vitellogenic females. We conclude that intersexuality in C. quadricarinatus does not indicate a case of protandric sequential hermaphroditism, as previously suggested. The case of intersexuality described here presents a unique model for the study of the role of the androgenic gland in the regulation of sex differentiation in crustaceans.
  • 机译 滑冰电器中已分离纯化的神经末梢,用于生物化学和生理学研究
    摘要:Electric organs of skate (Raja species) dissociate to form populations of individual electrocytes when incubated in saline solutions containing collagenase, The rate of dissociation was highly temperature dependent, with an apparent Q(10) of >6 in the range of 6 degrees-26 degrees C. The number of electrocytes per organ was relatively constant and independent of electric organ size, whereas mean cell diameters increased with organ size, The activities of two cholinergic marker enzymes, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), in extracts of whole fresh organs were much less than those reported for the electric ray Torpedo, suggesting a lower volume of terminals in the organ. Electrocytes prepared from collagenase-treated organs had good resting potentials and generated postsynaptic evoked potentials. Spontaneous and electrode pressure-evoked miniature endplate potentials (MEPPs) were readily recorded from isolated electrocytes. Incubation periods of more than 4 days in collagenase at 6 degrees C produced electrocytes with good resting potentials and very low MEPP frequencies, indicating denervation, Detachment of terminals and decreased MEPP frequencies were concurrent, The time course of denervation was followed with the appearance of ChAT and AChE activities in a small particulate fraction derived from washed electrocytes. Peak activities of both enzymes were seen at 4 days of incubation at 16 degrees C, but after 20 h at 16 degrees C, Electrocytes from 4-day, 6 degrees C incubations showed detached, mitochondria-rich nerve terminals and dissociated Schwann cells. In unfixed preparations examined with Nomarski optics, isolated nerve terminals were recognized and distinguished from nucleated Schwann cells. Electron micrographs show that isolated terminals were similar to attached terminals just before they dissociated. The MEPP frequencies and evoked potentials were normal at terminals just before dissociation.
  • 机译 完全直接开发出一种来自百姓的蛇形芽孢杆菌(Batus cordatus),一种孵化的拟南芥(Echinodermata:Echinoidea)。
    摘要:Development of the brooding schizasterid Abatus cordatus, a subantarctic echinoid endemic to Kerguelen, is described. Females spawn nonbuoyant eggs 1300 μm in diameter, which are fertilized by elongated sperm (head 1 μm wide and 15 μm long). The main characteristics of this development are (1) incomplete cleavage beginning at the animal pole that becomes holoblastic, giving a filled wrinkled blastula 26 days after fertilization; (2) apparent (fate-mapping studies have not been done) external migration of mesenchyme cells, in the perivitelline space, from the animal to the vegetal pole during gastru-lation while the archenteron invaginates; (3) hatching occurring at the end of the gastrulation (65 days after fertilization); (4) differentiation of the vestibule from a thickening of the oral epidermis as soon as the end of gastrulation is attained; and (5) production of a juvenile directly from the gastrula without any larval stage. The juvenile that leaves the brood chamber is 2 mm in diameter and about 250 days old. A. cordatus is a true completely direct developer (no larva and no metamorphosis). We propose to use (1) the term perigastrulation, as a tentative one until more definitive studies are available, to describe the hypothetical peculiar movement of cells during gastrulation and (2) the terms of direct development only for completely direct developing species and abbreviated development for species that have more or less transformed plutei.
  • 机译 18S RDNA揭示的磷酸盐和蕨类半翅目的摄食装置的收敛性-一个解释。
    • 作者:Halanych KM;
    • 刊名:The Biological Bulletin
    • 1996年第1期
    摘要:Homology, of the feeding apparatus of pterobranch hemichordates and the lophophore of bryozoans, brachiopods, and phoronids has been postulated but never rigorously tested. I employ Patterson's (1, 2) three criteria of conjunction, similarity! and congruence to test this putative homology. Although the conjunction and similarity criteria are satisfied congruence is not. The congruence test is based on a phylogeny derived from 18S rDNA sequence data which show that pterobranchs and lophophorates ave in different metazoan subkingdoms and are not closely related. This finding indicates that a lophophore-like apparatus has evolved at least twice in metazoans even though the gross morphology, feeding mechanics, ultrastructure, and ciliary patterns of these organisms are very similar. The high degree of morphological convergence presumably results from similar selective regimes acting on these taxa. These findings indicate that major clades of organisms can evolve in a corresponding fashion despite independent origins.
  • 机译 牡蛎核牡蛎对空气暴露和白金鱼感染的酸碱状况
    摘要:Hemolymph acid-base variables were investigated in the Eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, to determine its responses to air exposure and to infections by the parasite Perkinsus marinus. Infected and uninfected oysters were subjected to two treatments of temperature (21 degrees and 30 degrees C) and air exposure (5 and 24 h). Upon exposure to air, oysters underwent a respiratory acidosis that remained uncompensated in uninfected oysters but was partially compensated in highly infected oysters at both 21 degrees and 30 degrees C. The acidosis was significantly greater in oysters with high infections. Hemolymph in uninfected oysters had a greater buffering capacity (-6.80 +/- 0.76 SEM slykes) than hemolymph in highly infected oysters (-3.30 +/- 0.50 SEM slykes). Calcium ion concentrations in hemolymph increase when the hemolymph becomes acidic, suggesting that shell decalcification plays a role in buffering the acid. During air exposure, although oysters do not visibly gape, they access air and are apparently not completely anaerobic.
  • 机译 宽容边缘的胚胎-鸡蛋质的环境和结构对氧气供给胚胎的影响。
    摘要:Oxygen concentrations in gelatinous egg masses of two species of opisthobranch gastropods were examined with microelectrodes. Embryos in central positions are near the limit of the oxygen supply required for development. This limit is approached despite a diffusion constant for oxygen in masses that is close to that in water. Closed-chamber respirometry shows that oxygen is consumed by masses in the dark but generated in the light. Internal oxygen concentrations were greater in bright than in dim light. Thus photosynthesis and respiration of microorganisms associated with the masses affects the supply of oxygen to embryos within the mass. This effect of light was confirmed for egg masses of a polychaete. These observations, together with other published observations on the effects of hypoxia on development, indicate that the developmental rates of embryos in egg masses may depend on algal photosynthesis and metabolism. Flow around the masses also affects delivery of oxygen to embryos, but masses in dim light are at the limit of adequate supply even in a strong flow with a very thin boundary layer. Because the central embryos are near the Limit for adequate supply of oxygen by diffusion, their development rate thus depends on light, abundance of photosynthetic and heterotrophic microorganisms, flow, and oxygen concentration in the surrounding water.
  • 机译 大麻的排放机理:Ⅰ。从海葵触角,Aiptasia pallida触角排出的C科的内在附着力的测量。
    摘要:Two kinds of cnida predominate in the tentacles of the acontiate sea anemones: spirocysts and mi-crobasic mastigophore nematocysts. These cnidae discharge in response to appropriate mechanical and chemical stimulation. In this paper, we calculate the strengths of attachment between the tentacle and the capsules (= "tentacle adherence") of discharged spirocysts and mas-tigophores by measuring adhesive force and by determining the numbers of spirocysts and mastigophores discharged onto targets under conditions where the attachment of everted cnida tubules to the target (= "cnida adhesion") exceeds tentacle adherence. Under these conditions, the average contribution of individual cnidae to adhesive force is called the intrinsic adherence. The intrinsic adherence is a measure of the average frictional force required to dislodge the capsule of individual discharged cnidae from the tentacle. The intrinsic adherence of discharged mastigophores varies inversely, from 0.45 to 0.15 mgf (4.41 to 1.47 μN), with the number of discharged mastigophores. The larger values characterize mastigophores discharged by mechanically triggering non-chemosensitized tentacles, whereas the lower values characterize the intrinsic adherence of mastigophores discharged from chemosensitized tentacles. In contrast, the intrinsic adherence of discharged spirocysts is very low to insignificant. Thus, by comparison to mastigophores, spirocysts contribute little, if any, to adhesive force, and, by inference, do not directly secure captured prey to the tentacle. Our measurements indicate that penetrable prey are primarily secured to the tentacle by discharged mastigophores and by the inherent stickiness of the tentacle surface.
  • 机译 鱼类行为的刺激-多种海洋生物组织的分析。
    摘要:Analyses of the free amino acids, quaternary amines, guanido compounds, nucleotides, nucleosides, and organic acids in extracts of tissues from 10 species of marine teleost fishes and 20 species of invertebrates are reported. With multidimensional scaling techniques, the relative concentrations of the above chemicals in fishes, molluscs, and crustaceans are shown to cluster into separate taxon-specific groups. The greatest differences are between the fishes and the two groups of invertebrates. Similarities are more evident between the molluscs and crustaceans where eight of the nine most abundant substances are identical: i.e., betaine, taurine, trimethylamine oxide, glycine, alanine, proline, homarine, and arginine. The major tissue components in the fishes and invertebrates are correlated with compounds previously shown to stimulate feeding behavior in 35 species of fish. Glycine and alanine are major tissue components and are also the two most frequently cited feeding stimulants in the 35 species. Molluscs and crustaceans each contain high concentrations of five of the most frequently cited stimulants (glycine, alanine, proline, arginine, and betaine); these substances all occur in much lower concentrations in fish. Some minor tissue components, such as tryptophan, phenylalanine, aspartic acid, valine, and uridine 5'-monophosphate, are, however, important feeding stimulants for some fish species. Stimulants for herbivores and carnivores are often different. Several major feeding stimulants are substances that serve as ''compensatory solutes,'' stabilizing enzymes and structural proteins.
  • 机译 区域沿海研究-它是什么-为什么这样做-NAML应该扮演什么角色
    • 作者:Nixon SW;
    • 刊名:The Biological Bulletin
    • 1996年第2期
    摘要:Regional coastal (i.e., marine and Great Lakes) research is an increasingly popular, but still ill-defined, activity. The purpose of regional research and monitoring is to help us understand how events and processes at higher levels of organization, over larger spaces and longer times, influence local ecosystems of interest or concern. Research at this scale will require us to work in larger multidisciplinary and multi-institutional teams than we traditionally have. A survey of papers published in Estuaries, Continental Shelf Research, and Deep Sea Research confirms the impression that estuarine studies are more commonly carried out by one or two investigators, and that those investigators are commonly from a single institution, However, the most important challenge facing coastal ecologists as they embark on larger-scale research lies, not in increasing collaboration, but in their traditional approach to science. We marine ecologists too often indulge in elaborate post hoc explanations for the behavior of the complex systems we study, rather than focusing on the development and testing of falsifiable empirical theories. Moreover, we tend to describe our research priorities and accomplishments using fuzzy terms and concepts that seldom have clear operational definitions, As a result, we are in danger of losing the confidence and support of the public and the science funding agencies. It will not do to embark on regional research by simply trying to measure more things in more places more often. The coastal marine research community, perhaps through the National Association of Marine Laboratories (NAML), must reexamine the way it has been doing research. We will have to do smarter science if we are going to prosper in a future of diminished resources.
  • 机译 鸭黄瓜鳞翅目蛛网膜囊内繁殖期间的假蝇死亡率。
    • 作者:Sewell MA;
    • 刊名:The Biological Bulletin
    • 1996年第2期
    摘要:Estimates of mortality during development in brooders have been restricted by the lack of a reliable method for determining the number of embryos at the start of brooding. The calcareous ring of the pentactulae of Leptosynapta clarki can be used to determine initial embryo number because the ring is present for about 93% of the brooding period, is retained within the ovary, and is not resorbed after embryo death. Pentactulae mortality was found to be variable in female Leptosynapta clarki, with up to 100% mortality (= total brood loss) in some females. Estimates of instantaneous mortality in L. clarki ranged from 0 to -0.0114 d(-1) and were of similar magnitude to those for other brooding marine invertebrates. The resorption of dead pentactulae in the ovary may provide additional material to the ovarian fluid for the nutrition of living pentactulae. The retention of hard embryonic structures (e.g., calcareous parts, shells) in other brooding marine invertebrates may allow further estimates of mortality during brooding, and provide an insight into the importance of embryo mortality in the evolution of marine invertebrate life histories.
  • 机译 国家海岸实验室的跨学科研究
    摘要:The nation's coastal (i.e., marine and Great Lakes) laboratories and programs of aquatic research face serious challenges for survival in the decades to come. Although research in these institutions is strongly interdisciplinary, this characteristic and its effect are not widely recognized. Examples of successful interdisciplinary research are many, encompassing a wide range of scales of operation, from the varied technical approaches taken in individual laboratories to multi-laboratory, multi-institutional and multi-platform programs of very large scale. Our survey of interdisciplinary research in the nation's marine and coastal laboratories leads to three conclusions: (1) The trend toward collaboration in marine research is scientist-driven, rapid, and inexorable. It is driven by problems of increasing complexity, and the recognition that multiple approaches are synergistic and powerful, producing answers where single approaches cannot. (2) This trend is rapidly increasing the diversity of expertise and technical competence among coastal laboratories. (3) And the research community and its support agencies must therefore find new ways of representing this rapidly increasing diversity within the country's marine laboratories and their programs. Given past successes, we may be tempted to push forward with large multidisciplinary programs, but we should not neglect the funding required by innovative individual scientists. The marine and aquatic research community and its funding agencies face a major challenge in the years ahead: they must develop a publicly recognizable, national agenda for marine and coastal research that adequately represents the broad spectrum of interdisciplinary research entailed, while ensuring that nonconventional work and innovative "individual" science be effectively funded. Such a balanced approach is most likely to effect a sustained economic development of the nation's coastal zone.
  • 机译 盖勒夜蛾两个BYSAL蛋白基因的表达位点
    摘要:Mussels form byssal threads that can attach tenaciously to wet and irregular surfaces. The byssus consists of a fibrous collagenous core, and at least two types of polyphenolic proteins surround it. One of these proteins, designated Mgfp-1, coats the collagenous core; the other, designated Mgfp-2, is the major component of the terminal adhesive plaque of byssal threads, Both proteins contain 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) in their primary sequences. In this study, the sites of expression of the genes encoding the polyphenolic proteins were investigated in Mytilus galloprovincialis. By northern blot analysis, we found that the expression of both genes is foot-specific. Northern blot analysis of RNA isolated from the distal end and the remaining proximal portion of the foot indicated that the Mgfp-2 gene is expressed primarily in the distal part, whereas Mgfp-1 expression occurs in both parts, In situ hybridization indicated that the Mgfp-1 gene transcript is localized in the accessory gland along the ventral groove of the foot, and the Mgfp-2 gene transcript is localized in the phenol gland near the foot apex. Thus, it was shown that tissues expressing Mgfp-1 and Mgfp-2 are located around the ventral groove in an arrangement appropriate for byssus formation.
  • 机译 蝇果蝇果蝇的幼虫、,和成虫阶段的内源性β-半乳糖苷酶活性表明lacZ融合基因研究需要谨慎
    摘要:β-galactosidase activity is known to exist in Drosophila melanogaster, but a detailed analysis of the tissue-specific patterns of activity has not previously been reported. Such an analysis is of particular interest because Drosophila is commonly used for making transformants that carry fusion genes in which the E. coli β-galactosidase gene, lacZ, is used as a reporter gene. When these transformants are analyzed for β-galactosidase activity by using chromogen X-gal staining, the method does not distinguish true fusion-gene activity from endogenous β-galac-tosidase activity or from the β-galactosidase activity of bacterial contaminants. Therefore, detailed maps of endogenous β-galactosidase activity in this organism would help to prevent errors in data interpretation and would indicate which stages were most appropriate for experiments with the lacZ transformants. We have constructed such maps by applying X-gal staining methods to serial frozen sections and whole mounts of larval, prepupal, pupal, and adult stages of D. melanogaster reared under axe-nic conditions. Results showed endogenous β-galactosidase activity in a variety of organs including the larval intestine, spiracles, lymph glands, cellular epidermis, and eye-antenna imaginal discs; the pupal cellular epidermis, lymph glands, imaginal tissues, fat body, and spiracle; and the adult pericardial cells, thoracic nephrocytes, ven-triculus, and reproductive system. The good correlation between staining and metamorphic remodeling and phagocytic activity indicates that endogenous β-galactosidase is physiologically interesting.
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