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  • 期刊名称:

    Sensors and materials

  • 中文名称: 传感器和材料
  • 刊频: 0.481
  • ISSN: 0746-9462
  • 出版社: -
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  • 机译 前言
    摘要: From the current technological perspectives, smart industry and environmental applications require advanced smart sensing technology and materials. Smart industry embraces real-time collaborative manufacturing systems to satisfy customer needs as well as to meet conditions and changes in smart factories in term of connectivity, automation, and data. Retrospectively, the advent of advanced industry could produce potential hazards, various types of pollution, and benign environment. To manage both industry and environment, better sensors and materials, better decision-making, better techniques with up-to-date information must be considered and addressed. Hence, this special issue is focused on smart sensing technology and materials for smart industry and environmental applications.
  • 机译 有关使用传感器和网络的软件,算法和应用程序的特刊(2)
    • 作者:Yoshito Tobe;
    • 刊名:Sensors and materials
    • 2020年第2期
    摘要: Recent advancements in computer and networking technologies have enabled the enhancement of the interpretation and utilization of sensor data in the trend towards greater proliferation of cyber physical systems (CPSs), machine-to-machine (M2M) systems, and the Internet of Things (IoT). Researchers in sensing technologies provide technological means to capture environmental, technical, physiological and other data. They provide the raw material from which applications and services will be built. Sensor data are the basis of the smart world and have opened a new field in computing. Of all the emerging areas in computer and networking technologies, we witness the most significant development in machine learning techniques including deep neural networks. Machine learning further extends the possibility of utilizing the real-world data obtained by various kinds of sensors.
  • 机译 使用Smartwatch和信标进行室内位置检测
    摘要: Nowadays, the number of elderly and other people living alone is increasing. Although living alone allows more independence, it raises the risk of serious or even fatal accidents. To help assist those who live alone, we propose a monitoring system to detect indoor position by using a smartwatch and beacons, which are effective and low cost, easy to install, convenient, and unobtrusive in daily life. Data mining techniques were applied to classify indoor positioning zones. A noise reduction process combining two data smoothing techniques was incorporated. The best model for indoor positioning was chosen from various algorithms and different window sizes of data to achieve the best usage in a real-time classification. Both the number and positioning of beacons were also considered in this research. Various useful screens with easy-to-understand visualizations are provided for monitoring subject behaviors and time spent in certain areas, giving a summary of indoor positioning. Finally, the system allows users to manage indoor positioning by combining the marked spots as zoning areas. The management of different numbers of beacons and their locations is also provided to users.
  • 机译 基于二项式级数的线性可变差动变压器的线性范围扩展
    摘要: The linear-range extension technique for a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) is described in this paper. Generally, the LVDT has a narrow linear operating range caused by its nonlinear transfer characteristic. To extend the linear operating range, the nonlinear behavior of the LVDT must be adjusted. In this paper, the circuit building block providing the LVDT inverse transfer characteristic using binomial series approximation is proposed for linearizing the nonlinear behavior of the LVDT. The third-order inverse transfer characteristic of the LVDT is synthesized from analog multipliers and a difference amplifier comprising an operational amplifier (opamp). All active devices used in this study are commercially available. Therefore, the attraction of the proposed technique is in the simple configuration and low cost, making it suitable for an embedded measurement system. The performance of the proposed technique is discussed in detail. Simulation and experimental results confirming the performance are also included. As a result, the linear range of the commercial LVDT used in this study can be extended more than 500%. The full scale error of the measured value is about 0.23% over the entire operating range.
  • 机译 基于聚酰胺的机器人手臂结构设计有限元分析
    摘要: Robots have increasingly replaced humans for many jobs, including 24 h work, routine tasks, and dangerous jobs. However, the robot operating system has high power consumption in many processes. This has led to energy efficiency being the main focus. We have opted to build a robot with high strength, light weight, and low power consumption by reducing the weight of its components. Presently, we know that the structure of most robots in the world is made of metals, plastics, and composite materials. In this research, we designed the mechanical structure of robot arms with three different materials (cast iron, polyamide, and aluminum) using the finite element method to analyze and evaluate the possibilities of these materials. The dynamic load, power consumption, and mechanical characteristics were compared. It was found that polyamide could help lighten the weight by 40% and increase energy efficiency along with cost effectiveness by 41%. Although polyamide is particularly easy to find, cast iron is stronger than polyamide.
  • 机译 利用粒子群优化和人工神经网络实时控制六轴机器人手臂的遥感能量消耗
    摘要: We propose a new method for the analysis and design of a robotic system that minimizes the energy consumption of a six-axis robot arm by controlling the velocity and acceleration of each arm of the robot to achieve the specified trajectory of the robot determined from a lean manufacturing method. A dynamic model of the PUMA 560 robot has been simulated on MATLAB, while the Robotics Toolbox and particle swarm optimization (PSO) are utilized to search for optimal paths and the optimal velocity and acceleration of the robot arms. The optimal velocity and acceleration are described as those giving minimum overall energy consumption constrained by a specified cycle time of the entire robotic system. Typically, the picking and placing of materials are carried out by humans, causing a variation in production rate, whereas our system using a robot arm ensures a stable production rate. Moreover, the optimal results obtained from PSO are adopted to train an artificial neural network (ANN) to extend the design system from discrete optimal values to a continuous and near-optimal value. In other words, the ANN is used to obtain an approximate optimal value between those obtained from PSO to make the system applicable to a real-world system. As shown by the simulation results, this method reduces the energy consumption of 12.3% from the initial energy and reduces the time for optimization by 99.8% compared with that for the PSO technique.
  • 机译 可访问性差的地区用于移动智能传感的无人机实时空气污染监测的开发
    摘要: The topic of air pollution, especially in terms of particulate matter (PM), is a very serious problem in current society. This problem is caused by such factors as forest fires, construction, industrialization, and the ever-increasing number of motor vehicles. Thus, PM~(2.5) has become an important risk factor for citizens in Thailand as well as globally, not only in terms of the problems associated with health risks, but also the negative impact on the image of the country. Measuring pollution for air quality monitoring is a challenging task, especially when considering areas that have poor accessibility. The aim of this work is to develop a drone equipped with sensors to monitor and collect air quality data in real time from such areas of potential pollution. The proposed drone is called the drone for real-time air pollution monitoring (Dr-TAPM) and is equipped with the ability to measure the concentration of carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O_3), nitrogen dioxide (NO_2), PM, and sulfur dioxide (SO_2). Additionally, the collected data is transmitted to a cloud server every second over a wireless internet connection. In this study, the measurement was conducted in the experiment area, which is considered to be in the pollutant model scenario. The experimental results are shown as graphs of quantitative pollutant levels and air quality index (AQI) values obtained from realtime monitoring on a mobile application.
  • 机译 海fish脱盐过程中盐分感应系统的开发
    摘要: In the seafood industry, a large amount of salt is added to preserve seafood products. During processing, it is necessary to desalt the products for the sake of customers' health. Unlike a large-scale factory, many small enterprises lack tools and methods for desalting and measuring the efficiency of the desalting process. We have developed a rapid prototype salt-sensing system that can measure the desalting efficiency. Dried salted jellyfish are used as testing materials to evaluate the system. The rapid prototype comprises a microcontroller, a wire, and a liquid crystal display. Using a simple mapping between electrical conductivity and actual data obtained from the measurement of samples, the sensing system is successfully calibrated. A method of desalting the salted jellyfish material is also proposed. This desalting method and the newly developed simple sensing system for the desalting process are expected to make a significant contribution to the seafood processing industry.
  • 机译 基于盐溶液的高压电阻在高压脉冲产生与测量中的应用
    摘要: This paper presents applications of high-voltage (HV) resistors based on saline solution for HV impulse generation and measurement. The electrical resistivity and relative permittivity of saline solution in the frequency range from 100 Hz to 100 MHz were investigated. The electrical resistivity and relative permittivity were calculated from experimental measurements of the resistance and capacitance of saline solution in a test cell. From the characteristics and the experimental results, the technical data of saline solution with various concentrations of substances were utilized in the design of HV resistors for HV impulse generation and measurement, as a current-limiting resistor and an HV resistor used in an HV part of a voltage divider. Moreover, the developed HV resistors were tested to confirm their effectiveness in HV generation and measurement. From the experimental results, it was found that the developed HV resistors have promising characteristics for practical HV impulse generation and measurement. According to the results of this study, an HV resistor based on saline solution has strong potential for application in HV impulse generation and measurement compared with a conventional voltage divider.
  • 机译 量测列车运行状态人工智能视觉系统的开发
    摘要: We studied and inspected the evaluation of safety during the operation of a rail system. In addition, in order to find patterns in the interaction between wheels and rails, the interaction is investigated using an automatic vision system to analyze the patterns that occur. The model of a faster region with a convolutional neural network (R-CNN) can be used to design artificial intelligence (AI) models with vision systems for detecting abnormal operations that occur, causing rail accidents, and to monitor the measurement of tracks and interactions between wheels and tracks in real time.
  • 机译 前言
    摘要:
  • 机译 NeuralIO:通过智能手机上的多模式传感器数据融合进行室内-室外检测
    摘要: The indoor-outdoor (10) status of mobile devices is fundamental information for various smart city applications. In this paper, we present NeuralIO, a neural-network-based method for dealing with the IO detection problem for smartphones. Multimodal data from various sensors on a smartphone are fused through neural network models to determine the IO status. A data set containing more than one million labeled samples is then constructed. We test the performance of an early fusion scheme in various settings. NeuralIO achieves an accuracy above 98% in 10-fold cross-validation and an accuracy above 90% in a real-world test.
  • 机译 基于动物寿命的可穿戴设备的最佳布置,作为长期监测野生动物传感器网络的设备运输材料
    摘要: In this paper, we discuss the optimal arrangement of wearable devices based on the lifespan of animals, which arc utilized as device transporter materials, for the long-term monitoring of the wildlife animal sensor network using multi-agent simulation to reproduce the wild environment. Related studies have proposed animal-to-animal data sharing to realize long-term monitoring in the wild environment. The research on the power saving of wireless communication in a group of animals has been conducted using animal behavior. However, a system that considers the lifespan of transported wildlife, in addition to power saving, is required for long-term monitoring in the wild environment. Herein, we used multi-agent simulation to reproduce the wild environment considering the lifespan of animals, and examined when and how many individuals should be introduced to the wild environment to realize data sharing in the group of animals over several years. The proposed method is suggested to enable the long-term monitoring of remote areas where people cannot enter without base stations and power infrastructure using wild animals for several years.
  • 机译 基于整体新颖性检测的未知人体设备位置检测
    摘要: In recent years, on-body device position recognition has attracted a lot of attention from the ubiquitous computing community with a view to providing reliable services to users. The existing work has focused on the recognition of classes included in a training dataset, but handling a new position that the recognition system does not know is still impossible. The unknown position should be handled in an appropriate way to avoid incorrect behavior and adapt to each user's way of carrying the device. In this article, we propose a new detection method based on the ensemble learning principle, in which the final results are obtained from a collection of judgments by a weak novelty detector. We devise a method of finding a threshold that maximizes overall accuracy, rather than a mere majority vote. This method is evaluated with three datasets and various conditions to confirm the effectiveness of ensemble novelty detection and the threshold estimation method.
  • 机译 基于组织光学的光学指纹传感器输出图像亮度分布的阐明机制
    摘要: In a previous study, we developed a novel fingerprint optical sensor that can detect fingerprint patterns within the skin of a finger without considering the effect of surface condition, and the illumination position of our sensor was optimized experimentally. When a light source irradiated the root of a nail, the output image was bright without saturation. Therefore, the fingerprint image was clear, and a large area of the fingerprint pattern was clear. The aim of the present study was to clarify by experiments the mechanism underlying these results, and we hypothesized that light is scattered throughout the bone and less scattered in the muscle. Thus, the output image is strongly shaded when the nail-side position is irradiated with light. To test the hypothesis and clarify the shading mechanism, we constructed a simple simulation model that consisted of only bone and muscle and used the Monte Carlo method to simulate optical scattering in the tissue. The simulation results were in good agreement with the experimental results, which, in turn, proved our hypothesis. This study contributes to improving our fingerprint sensor, for example, by improving verification performance for use in a wide range of applications. Furthermore, our study contributes to the development of various optical sensors for use with biological tissues.
  • 机译 通过步行进入智能建筑来实现供暖,通风和空调的本地化
    摘要: Energy saving has been explored over the past decades. Since most of the energy consumption in a building is from the air condition system, the air conditioners in a building are often controlled through a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. To control each HVAC unit individually, the locations of HVAC units are essential information. However, manual location identification requires significant labor for a large number of Internet of Things (IoT) devices deployed in a building. In this paper, we propose a Bluetooth low energy (BLE)-based HVAC unit localization method. We assume that a BLE module is attached to each HVAC unit, and then the locations of HVAC units can be estimated using the signal strength of the BLE module, which is observed by site survey of a worker. Our method requires a floor plan containing the physical locations of HVAC units and matches BLEs to the locations on the floor plan by estimation. The site survey can be carried out without visiting the entire site. Instead, the worker is required to follow several walking paths, which reduces the labor cost and time. We evaluated our method in a real office building with 26 BLEs on two floors. The results show that 70% of the BLEs were matched to their correct physical locations.
  • 机译 灾难期间无互联网通信的有效应用程序分发系统
    摘要: Smartphone-based disaster communication systems have been the topic of many recent studies. However, existing systems unrealistically assume that prior to a disaster, the required applications have been installed in the smartphones of all users. In disaster areas without Internet access, obtaining the software required for communications systems is difficult because application distribution platforms, such as Google Play, are web-based. In this paper, we present RecurShare, which is a novel application distribution system. The key idea of RecurShare is to be able to distribute applications without the Internet by running a web server that can be accessed using the default web browser and the tethering function of Android smartphones. We evaluated the feasibility of RecurShare experimentally and showed that RecurShare functions without problems on a variety of commercial devices. Also, user feedback suggests that RecurShare sufficiently guides users through the application distribution process in a manner that is easy to understand. Furthermore, we found that RecurShare can distribute itself at an exponential rate and that it can transmit files at speeds that are comparable to those of commonly used wireless communication systems.
  • 机译 无线局域网信号强度测量无需新锚即可进行传感器定位
    摘要: In sensor networks, sensor localization is one of the mandatory functions for physical sensing. In this paper, we propose a sensor localization system that utilizes wireless local area network (WLAN) access points (APs) as anchor nodes. WLAN is widely available nowadays, and WLAN APs are used in many environments. Therefore, for our localization system, we utilize the WLAN APs already installed in the environment, thereby eliminating the installation of new anchors. We present an AP received signal strength (RSS) measurement method, which is the key technology of our sensor localization system. Notably, sensor nodes equipped with an IEEE 802.15.4 (ZigBee) module cannot detect WLAN AP signals. We therefore developed an AP signal detection method with AP identification by employing a cross-technology signal detection technique. Experimental evaluations demonstrate that our AP signal detection method successfully identified sender APs with a false positive (FP) detection rate less than 20%. The experiments also validated that the measured AP-RSS followed the same distribution as the RSS measured using a WLAN device.
  • 机译 通过远程技术实现物联网网络安全性和应用
    摘要: In this research project, we aim to build a long-range (LoRa)-based Internet of Things (IoT) secure localization system and application based on multisensor fusion calculation. The LoRa technology is used to design a network security system and immediately address the computing system, where the purpose is to develop a network server host that collects and processes position signals from the multisensing signal collection and analysis processing module, and instantly detects location by network nodes through the sensors cloud, the Arduino UNO high-level development platform, and the multisensor fusion computing workstations, which send the results to the central monitoring system through the wireless devices of the LoRa network. The secure localization computing chip outcome, as developed in this project, can be used in the domains of energy management, environmental management, information management, factory monitoring, and renewable energy management. The system of this project comprises LoRa hosts, which receive signals from various nodes and are connected to a multisensor fusion arithmetic system through a wireless network. To sum up, in this study, we emphasize using multisensor fusion computing technology to implement a secure localization system of a wireless sensor network (WSN), and we consider using the embedded system and LoRa technology to develop a monitoring system for factory fire control, anti-theft, energy, information, and security based on secure localization. In this study, we cross domains and integrate related engineering automation, network security technology, multisensor fusion calculation design, and the LoRa localization technique, and the research findings are expected to contribute to the network security of the defense industry and research on the LoRa IoT localization system.
  • 机译 智能传感器水箱在车辆热电转换中的应用
    摘要: Generally, vehicles driven by fuels, such as gasoline, diesel, and aviation oil, are equipped with water tanks. These vehicles include vans, cars, heavy locomotives, fire engines, ambulances, aircraft, and boats. The cooling water in these water tanks absorbs the heat generated by engines and then gradually heats up. Nowadays, the heated cooling water is usually channeled into a radiator and returned to the water tank until the heat is dissipated. This has caused the problem of energy waste in the cold-hot conversion process, which increases the environmental impact of the vechicles. Therefore, in this research, a thermal power generation device is designed with a simple structure, composed of a Pt100 thermocouple thermometer and a thermistor with an LM358 operational amplifier as two different sensing devices. The designed device is expected to increase the power generation capacity without using additional energy for cooling thermoelectric power generation chips. Therefore, it is of great importance to cool the surface of the chips. Thermoelectric power generation chips are installed at the four corners of the front and rear of a water tank. The thermal energy generated by the water tank is used to generate electric energy, which achieves the purpose of energy recycling. The designed device is cost-effective and can achieve the purpose of reducing environmental impact and energy conservation. This research can be used as a reference for vocational education from the aspects of technology, management, design, technicalization, and research and development.
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