摘要：The availability of affordable energy is an essential element to global economic development. Energy is needed for virtually every important function in modem society from growing and cooking food, to manufacturing, the heating and cooling of buildings, and transportation. The interruption of supplies by storms, earthquakes, wars, or other disasters quickly demonstrates how totally dependent we have become on the energy-consuming machines that shape and support our lives.
摘要：During the past several decades magnetic fusion has made outstanding progress in understanding the science of fusion plasmas, the achievement of actual fusion plasmas and the development of key fusion technologies. Magnetic fusion is now technically ready to take the next step: the study of high gain fusion plasmas, the optimization of fusion plasmas and the continued development and integration of fusion technology. However, each of these objectives requires significant resources since the tests are now being done at the energy production scale. This paper describes a modular approach that addresses these objectives in specialized facilities that reduces the technical risk and lowers cost for near term facilities needed to address critical issues.
摘要：In following the theme of this Symposium, “Plasma Science and Its Applications,” we may be suggesting to some leaders that the “other” applications of Plasma Science somehow justify the existence of a field traditionally devoted to fusion energy. In fact, we do not believe that plasma science can or should be justified for its spin--off contributions. Nevertheless, the unity of science would be seriously threatened by a precipitous decline in the support for plasma science. It is that unity which repeatedly has been verified as one looks for how advances in one field are crucial' to several other seemingly fundamentally different fields. Thus it is in this case, as a representative of the community of Particle Accelerator Scientists, that we show four significant areas in which the methods and the results of plasma science have been applied to Accelerator Science. We have deliberately skipped plasma ion sources which are perhaps the most obvious application of plasmas to accelerators. Two of our four examples are cases in which the computational methods of plasma science have been adopted, and two are examples in which the plasmas themselves are employed. One of each category are now actively in use and the other one in each category is being used to develop or design new devices.
摘要：When considered inclusively, plasma science and technology encompass immense diversity, perva- siveness and potential f diversity through numerous topical areas (see list of nearly 200 in Table II); pervasiveness with examples covering the full range of energy time and spatial scale; and potential through innumerable current and future applications.
摘要：An overview is provided of the papers presented at Fusion Power Associates annual meeting and symposium on the topic "Plasma Science and Its Applications," held June 3--5, l998 in Washington, DC. Only those papers not otherwise contained in the current issue of the JFE are covered.
摘要：This paper describes some of the near-term practical applications of plasma science from the perspective of National Laboratories involved with fusion research for many years. The first half of the paper presents suggestions for maintaining a healthy national program in this area. The second pan of the paper gives specific examples of near-term plasma applications research at our laboratories.
摘要：The international character of fusion research and development is described, with special emphasis on the ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) joint venture. The history of the ITER collaboration is traced. Lessons drawn that may prove useful for future ventures are presented.
摘要：A survey is presented on the Education Outreach activities that are sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Fusion Energy Sciences, with emphasis on the scope of these activities and the history behind the effort.
摘要：Two strategic decisions facing the U.S. fusion program are described. The first decision deals with the role and rationale of the tokamak within the U. S. fusion program, and it underlies the debate over our continuing role in the evolving ITER collaboration (mid-1998). The second decision concerns how to include Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) as a viable part of the national effort to harness fusion energy.
摘要：A survey is presented of the plasma science research underway in the University of California (UC) system. Plasma research is carried out in at least fifteen different departments at seven of the nine UC campuses, as well as at the three UC-managed DOE laboratories (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)). In addition, many of these activities involved strong collaborations among UC sites as well as with institutions outside of the UC system. The environment for plasma science at UC ranges from small-scale research activities to large programs. Students have the opportunity of being trained in a team setting or in working individually with a professor Research activities are supported by both government and private sector funding and have a wide range of applications and motivations. These applications can be grouped into general categories such as commercial manufacturing, energy, defense, development of new tools, and fundamental understanding of our universe.
摘要：In many academic institutions plasma science is currently viewed as a basic physics discipline encompassing a broad range of applications including fusion, astrophysics, space physics, low temperature plasma physics for the semiconductor industry, and environmental remediation of nuclear and chemical waste. Although the applications are broad, it is accurate to state that the major development of the field has been driven by the scientific needs of a single program, fusion. As such, plasma science and engineering has played an important role in graduate education since the early days of the fusion program, late 50's, early 60's.
摘要：Stellarators offer advantages for reactors, namely the potential for steady state operation with low recirculating power (high engineering Q) and without disruptions. A substantial portion of the world fusion program is devoted to the development of stellarators as a magnetic confinement system. The world stellarator program, as it currently exists, is focused on high-aspect-ratio (R/a = 5 - II) designs that lead to very large reactors. For example the German advanced stellarator reactor design HSR has an aspect ratio of 12 and a major radius of 22 m. An important issue for stellarator research is whether more compact reactor designs are possible. Could the advantage of stellarators also be realized at dimensions and performance levels closer to those of the advanced tokamak reactor ARIES-RS (R = 5.5 m, neutron wall load of 4 MW/m2)? Theory has identified a class of “compact stellarator” plasma configurations that could be the basis for such a design. They are promising, but need to be studied experimentally in order to realistically assess their potential. The most cost-effective way to accomplish this is to carry out the compact stellarator proof-of-principle program that has been proposed by the U.S. stellarator community. This program would answer the basic physics questions for compact stellarators and make important contributions to the world stellarator knowledge base at a cost (about $30M/year) that is modest compared to expenditures for stellarator and tokamak research world-wide.
摘要：There are several topics that require resolution prior to the construction of an Inertial Fusion Energy [IFE] laboratory Engineering Test Facility [ETF] f a pellet that produces high gain; a pellet fabrication system that cost-effectively and rapidly manufactures these pellets; a sufficiently uniform and durable high repetition--rate laser pellet driver; a practical target injection system that provides accurate pellet aiming; and, a target chamber that will survive the debris and radiation of repeated high-gain pellet implosions. In this summary we describe the science issues and opportunities that are involved in the design of a successful high gain direct drive Inertial Confinement Fusion [ICF] pellet.
摘要：It is widely believed that the use of superconducting magnets in next-step fusion experiments is driven only by the reactor relevance of low circulating power in a fusion plant. However, there is a broad range of fusion magnet applications in which the use of superconducting magnets in near term experiments will reduce the capital cost of an experiment, along with further reductions in the operating cost. This claim extends to Proof-of-Principle and Proof-of-Performance experiments for Steady-State and Spherical Tori, Compact Stellarators, Spheromaks, and Heavy Ion Fusion Drivers.
摘要：In collaboration with other laboratories, we are beginning a program to study and demonstrate the scientific, technical and economic feasibility of power production using laser fusion. The program, based on the development of a high average power Krypton Fluoride laser, is described in this paper.
摘要：A summary is provided of the keynote address, and other papers not otherwise published in this issue, presented at Fusion Power Associates symposium “Cost-effective Steps to Fusion Power,” held January 25--27, 1999 in Marina del Rey, CA.