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  • 期刊名称:

    Environmental Health Perspectives

  • 中文名称: 环境卫生观点
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  • ISSN: 0091-6765
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  • 机译 可能的相关性作为监测空气污染指标的鸽子
    摘要:Wild city pigeons were caught at four different locations in the Netherlands to represent areas of high (Amsterdam-high), moderate (Amsterdam-medium), and low (Maastricht and Assen) traffic density. It is assumed that local ambient air pollution decreases as a function of traffic density. In these pigeons levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-DNA adducts, oxidative DNA damage, and heavy metal residues were determined in kidney, lung, liver, and blood (no adduct analysis in blood). The contribution of leaded gasoline to total body lead content was estimated by measuring concentrations of Pb and its isotopes in blood. We also analyzed samples of ambient air particulate matter for PAH and heavy metal concentrations at the four different locations. Interregional differences in heavy metals in ambient air particulate matter were reflected relatively well by pigeon body loads. The highest lead and cadmium concentrations in blood, kidney, liver, and lung were found in the Amsterdam high traffic density area, followed by Amsterdam-medium, Assen, and Maastricht. A high Pb concentration in blood coincided with relatively low Pb-246/Pb-207 values, indicating a high contribution of leaded gasoline to total blood Pb concentrations in pigeons from the Amsterdam high traffic density area. Significantly enhanced blood zinc values were found in pigeons from both locations in Amsterdam compared to pigeons from the other two areas. However, no differences in Zn tissue levels between the four different groups were found. Oxidative DNA damage, determined as the ratio of 7-Hydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine/deoxyguanosine, in pigeon liver was highest in Amsterdam-high, followed by Assen (low traffic density). Pb content, but not the Cd content, was positively associated with oxidative DNA damage in liver tissue. In lung tissue, a negative correlation was found between oxidative DNA damage and Zn content. These results indicate that the carcinogenic potential of Pb might be ascribed to oxygen radical formation, whereas Zn plays a protective role against oxidative DNA damage. Places with high and medium traffic density could be clearly discriminated on the basis of PAH levels in the ambient air. The PAH content in particulate air samples was nob however, reflected in total PAH-related DNA adduct levels because no differences could be observed in tissue adduct levels in pigeons from the four different locations. Our results indicate that wild city pigeons fan be used as biological indicators of exposure to heavy metal pollution in outdoor air. [References: 59]
  • 机译 含有受杀草剂污染的饮用水的爱荷华州社区的子宫内生长迟缓
    摘要:In a statewide survey of 856 Iowa municipal drinking water supplies in 1986-1987 the Rathbun rural water system was found to contain elevated levels of triazine herbicides. Rates of low birth weight, prematurity, and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) in live singleton births during the period 1984-1990 by women living in 13 communities served by the Rathbun water system were compared to other communities of similar size in the same Iowa counties. The Rathbun communities had a greater risk of IUGR than southern Iowa communities with other surface sources of drinking water (relative risk = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.3, 2.7). Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that levels of the herbicides atrazine, metolachlor, and cyanazine were each significant predictors of community IUGR rates in southern Iowa after controlling for several potentially confounding factors including maternal smoking and socioeconomic variables. The association with IUGR was strongest for atrazine, but all three herbicides were intercorrelated and the independent contributions of each to IUGR risk could not be determined. We conclude that communities in southern Iowa with drinking water supplies contaminated with herbicides have elevated rates of IUGR compared to neighboring communities with different water supplies. Because of the limitations of the ecologic design of this study, including aggregate rather than individual measures of exposure and limited ability to control for confounding factors related to source of drinking water and risk of IUGR, a strong causal relationship between any specific water contaminant and risk of IUGR cannot yet be inferred. The association between the water supplied to the Rathbun communities and the increased risk of IUGR should be considered a preliminary finding that needs to be verified by more detailed epidemiologic studies. [References: 39]
  • 机译 利用蒙特卡罗统计法评价北极人口饮食污染物的分布。
    摘要:Organochlorines and heavy metals have bioaccumulated in Arctic wildlife, which is an important food source for the Inuit. In this study, we have developed a statistical model to describe the population distribution of contaminant exposure and the usual intake of the high-end contaminant consumers. Monte Carlo methods are used to account for variations due to seasonal dietary pattern and contaminant concentrations. Distribution of the dietary intake of the contaminants of most concern-mercury, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlordane, and toxaphenes-are described. Over 50% of the residents had dietary exposure levels exceeding the tolerable daily intake or provisional tolerable daily intake for Hg, toxaphene, and chlordane (83, 91, and 71% for men and 73, 85, and 56% for women, respectively). The high-end consumers (i.e. the 95th centile) have intake levels 6 times higher than the provisional tolerable weekly intake of Hg, and over 20 times the tolerable daily intake of chlordane and toxaphene. Assessment of heath risks of the relative high contaminant exposure in this community must also consider the nutritional, economical, cultural, and social importance of these traditional foods. A comprehensive risk management scheme has yet to be developed. [References: 32]
  • 机译 环境异种药物可能会干扰生理性液体与类固醇受体和蛋白质的结合,从而破坏正常的内分泌功能
    • 作者:Danzo BJ.;
    • 刊名:Environmental Health Perspectives
    • 1997年第3期
    摘要:The disruption of the reproductive system of male and female animals in the wild has been attributed to environmental chemicals (xenobiotics). The effects seen mirror alterations one might anticipate if the steroid hormone-dependent processes chat regulate these systems were impaired. To determine whether xenobiotics (present at a concentration of 100 mu M) exert their action through steroid-mediated pathways, we examined their ability to inhibit the binding of [H-3]physiological ligands (present at a concentration of 7 nM) to the androgen and estrogen receptors, rat androgen-binding protein (ABP), and human sex hormone-binding globulin (hSHBG). The gamma- and delta-isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane, congeners of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT; p,p'-DDT; p,p'-DDE; o,p'-DDT), dieldrin, atrazine, and pentachlorophenol, caused a statistically significant inhibition of specific binding of [H-3]5 alpha-DHT to the androgen receptor that ranged from 100% (p,p'-DDE) to 25% (dieldrin). Methoxychlor, o,p'-DDT, pentachlorophenol, and nonylphenol significantly reduced [H-3]17 beta-estradiol binding to the estrogen receptor by 10, 60, 20, and 75%, respectively. The binding of [H-3]5 alpha-DHT to ABP was inhibited 70% by the delta-isomer of hexachlorocyclohexane, but the gamma-isomer did not reduce binding significantly. Methoxychlor, p,p'-DDT, atrazine, and nonylphenol reduced [H-3]5 alpha-DHT binding to ABP by approximately 40%. Nonylphenol reduced the binding of [H-3]5 alpha-DHT to hSHBG by 70%. Hexachlorocyclohexane reduced [H-3]5 alpha-DHT binding to hSHBG by 20%, but the stereospecific effects observed with ABP did not occur. o,p'-DDT and pentachlorophenol resulted in a statistically significant 20% inhibition of [H-3]5 alpha-DHT binding to hSHBG. Some xenobiotics resulted in dissociation of [H-3]ligands from their binding proteins that was statistically identical to that caused by the unlabeled natural ligand, whereas others resulted in slower or more rapid dissociation rates. [References: 42]
  • 机译 紫外线辐射诱导的免疫调节:传染性,过敏性和自身免疫性疾病的潜在后果。
    摘要:Both the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) are concerned with potential health effects that might result from increased exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) as a result of depletion of stratospheric ozone by anthropogenic chemicals such as chlorofluorocarbons and halons. Major targets for UVR effects include the skin, eye, and immune system. A thorough review of effects of UVR on these tissues was published recently by WHO. In 1989, the EPA's Health Effects Research Laboratory (HERL, predecessor of NHEERL, the National Health and Environmental Effects Laboratory) convened an expert panel to identify research needs to improve health risk assessments with respect to UVR exposure. At that time there were sufficient data to make quantitative estimates of the risks of skin cancer and cataract development associated with depletion of stratospheric ozone. Studies also indicated that some immune functions were compromised by exposure to UVR and that this might influence the incidence and severity of infectious diseases as well as vaccine effectiveness. However, data necessary to quantitate the risk to the immune system were not available. As a result of recommendations from the expert panel, HERL initiated a small, focused research effort to improve this data base. The need to accurately assess the risk of UVR exposure to the immune system is critical, since these effects are expressed immediately, in contrast to skin cancer and cataracts, which take years to develop. In 1994, HERL and the UV Monitoring and Assessment Program, an industrial group, held a workshop that focused on potential effects UVR- induced immune suppression might have on infectious disease in humans and concluded that quantitative predictions were not possible.
  • 机译 铅太容易-汽油添加剂对健康的影响
    摘要:Octane-enhancing constituents of gasoline pose a number of heath hazards. This paper considers the relative risks of metallic (lead, manganese), aromatic (e.g., benzene), and oxygenated additives in both industrialized and developing countries. Technological advances, particularly in industrialized countries, have allowed the progressive removal of lead from gasoline and the increased control of exhaust emissions. The developing world, by contrast, has relatively lax environmental standards and faces serious public health problems from vehicle exhaust and the rapid increase in automobile use. Financial obstacles to the modernization of refineries and vehicle fleets compound this problem and the developing world continues to import large quantities of lead additives and other hazardous materials. Progress in decreasing environmental health problems depends both on the adoption of international public heath standards as well as efforts to decrease dependence on the private automobile for urban transport. [References: 42]
  • 机译 怀孕和产后暴露于环境烟草烟雾中的物质吸烟是引起急性呼吸道感染的易感因素
    摘要:This study compared susceptibility to respiratory morbidity in a cohort of 9-year-old children exposed congenitally and postnatally to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) to susceptibility in a cohort of unexposed children. The epidemiologic study included 1129 children: 594 boys and 535 girls attending the second grade of grammar schools in Krakow, Poland. We found strong evidence that children exposed to ETS in their homes were more susceptible to acute respiratory tract illnesses than unexposed children. A dose-response relationship between degree of exposure [for lower ETS exposure, odds ratio (OR) = 1.32; for higher ETS exposure, OR = 1.74] supports a causal explanation for the association observed. The significant trend of increased risk of respiratory infections due to ETS level in nonatopic children whose mothers did not smoke cigarettes during pregnancy suggests a direct effect of ETS exposure on the child's respiratory health. ETS combined with allergy nearly tripled the risk of acute respiratory tract illness (OR = 3.39; 95% CI, 1.93-5.93), and maternal smoking during pregnancy had a modifying effect on the risk of respiratory illnesses due to ETS after accounting for atopy. The stronger effect of ETS in atopic children and in those whose mothers smoked during pregnancy may be a result of biologic interaction of endogenous and environmental factors. The results of this study are of relevance to public health policy, as children with higher risk of respiratory infections may be more susceptible to environmental hazards later in adolescence or in adulthood. Respiratory infections also increase demands for medical interventions in terms of outpatient services and hospital admissions. In addition, respiratory illnesses cause missed school days, and caring for a sick child may lead to absenteeism from work. [References: 36]
  • 机译 细菌战
    • 作者:Jennifer Medlin;
    • 刊名:Environmental Health Perspectives
    • 1997年第3期
    摘要:A new breed of antimicrobial polymers is at work waylaying the growth of potentially harmful bacteria, molds, and fungi in an array of industrial, institutional, and consumer products. Developed by a trio of North Carolina biomedical engineers at Microban Products Company, the antimicrobial additives go into the products and materials they protect during the manufacturing process, yielding an inherently effective defense against the growth of microbes—and a protection that won't wash off or wear away. Independent laboratory tests have consistently shown dramatic reductions in microbial populations present on materials manufactured with Microban.
  • 机译 自我接受艺术
    • 作者:Scott Fields;
    • 刊名:Environmental Health Perspectives
    • 1997年第3期
    摘要:Like many artists, Pam Jardieu and John Labadie suffer for their art. "I use a lot of really nasty adhesives," says Jardieu, a graduate student and instructor at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago who constructs kinetic sculptures from found objects. "On contact with certain materials, like toluene and lead, my fingers puff up. My whole hand puffs up and gets really red," she said. Labadie, a painter and art professor at the University of North Carolina at Pembroke, had an even more severe reaction after being exposed first to paint solvents and later to polyester fiber glassing resin while working his way through art school: "I had real problems with my hands. They started to break out right when the weather changed, when it got cold," he says. "I had X-ray treatments. I had salves I had to put on, and I had to wear latex surgical gloves at night. I had light therapy and I took prescriptions for the next year."
  • 机译 硝酸盐消除
    • 作者:Conard Holton;
    • 刊名:Environmental Health Perspectives
    • 1996年第1期
    摘要:Concern about elevated concentrations of nitrate in drinking water is growing, espe-cially in rural areas where runoff from nitrate-rich fertilizers and animal manure often finds its way into the water supply. Nitrates are some of the highest volume chemicals made in the United States and are main components in fertilizers, pesticides, explosives, and a variety of other products. Researchers in Europe and the United States are now taking a "biocom-patible" approach to the problem of nitrate by using naturally occurring enzymes to reduce the nitrate to nitrogen gas and water.
  • 机译 基于机制的毒理学在癌症风险评估中的意义:研究,监管和立法的意义
    • 作者:George W. Lucier;
    • 刊名:Environmental Health Perspectives
    • 1996年第1期
    摘要:The National Toxicology Program (NTP) has broad responsibilities for: 1) expanding the toxicology database on the impact of chemical interactions with biological systems; 2) providing data that strengthen the science base for regulatory decisions; 3) developing and validating alternative test systems; and 4) communicating strategies and findings to the scientific community, regulatory agencies, and the public. To meet these responsibilities, NTP strategies and approaches are evolving along a number of fronts. The overall objective of these initiatives is to more efficiently test chemicals for toxic effects using a broad array of test systems and to generate data that strengthen the scientific foundation on which risk assessments are based. To develop strategies to improve the ability to meet these goals, the NIEHS/NTP sponsored the Workshop on Mechanism-based Toxicology in Cancer Risk Assessment: Implications for Research, Regulation, and Legislation, held 11-13 January 1995 in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.
  • 机译 自来水中食入,吸入和皮肤接触氯仿和三氯乙烯
    摘要:Individuals are exposed to volatile compounds present in tap water by ingestion, inhalation, and dermal absorption. Traditional risk assessments for water often only consider ingestion exposure to toxic chemicals, even though showering has been shown to increase the body burden of certain chemicals due to inhalation exposure and dermal absorption. We collected and analyzed time-series samples of expired alveolar breath to evaluate changes in concentrations of volatile organic compounds being expired, which reflects the rate of change in the bloodstream due to expiration, metabolism, and absorption into tissues. Analysis of chloroform and trichloethene in expired breath, compounds regulated in water, was also used to determine uptake from tap water by each route (inhalation, ingestion, or absorption). Each route of exposure contributed to the total exposure of these compounds from daily water use. Further, the ingestion dose was completely metabolized before entering the bloodstream, whereas the dose from the other routes was dispersed throughout the body. Thus, differences in potential biologically effective doses depend on route, target organ, and whether the contaminant or metabolite is the biologically active agent.
  • 机译 使用内源性,稳定的铅同位素确定骨架中铅的释放
    摘要:The stable lead isotope methodology can be used to study the release of lead from bone into the circulation because of its potential to distinguish circulatory lead from "older" and isotopically different skeletal lead that may have been accumulated years or decades earlier. Here we report the initial results from a larger ongoing study that evaluates the skeleton as a source of lead to the circulation in environmentally exposed human subjects. Lead concentrations and stable lead iso-topic compositions were measured in blood and trabecular bone samples obtained from five patients who underwent total hip or knee joint replacement. All subjects contained low blood (1-6 μg/dl) and bone (0.6-7 μg/g dry weight) lead concentrations typical of environmentally exposed individuals. There were relatively large differences in the lead isotopic compositions between the paired blood and bone samples from each subject. These isotopic differences are attributed to differences in the lead isotopic compositions of past versus current lead exposures and to the long elimination half-life of lead in the skeleton compared to lead in the circulation. Based on these data, we determined that the skeleton contributed 40-70% of the lead in the blood of these subjects. This initial study demonstrates the utility of the stable lead isotope methodology for investigating the release of lead from the skeleton. It also shows that the skeleton can be an important endogenous source of lead exposure in environmentally exposed humans.
  • 机译 转基因小鼠中金属硫蛋白-I过表达对镉生殖毒理学影响的分析
    摘要:Exposure to low levels of cadmium reduces fertility. In male mice spermatogenesis is highly sensitive to cadmium, whereas in females the peri-implantation period of pregnancy is sensitive. To examine the potential roles of the cadmium-binding protein, metallothionein (MT), in the reproductive toxicology of cadmium, we examined a transgenic mouse strain that overexpresses metallothionein-I (MT-I). These mice had dramatically increased steady-state levels of MT-I mRNA and MT in the testes and in the female reproductive tract during the peri-implantation period of pregnancy, and this overexpression occurred in a cell-specific and temporally regulated manner similar to that of the endogenous MT-I gene. Transgenic and control males were injected with cadmium, and the histology of the testes was examined. An injection of 7.5 μmol Cd/kg had no effect on histology of the testes in either transgenic or control mice. In contrast, an injection of 10 μmol Cd/kg caused rapid changes in the histology of the testes and resulted in pronounced testicular necrosis in both control and transgenic mice. Female transgenic and control mice were mated and then injected with cadmium (30-45 μmol Cd/kg) on the day of blastocyst implantation (day 4). In both of these groups, injection of cadmium reduced pregnancy rate, and no dramatic protection was afforded by maternal and/or embryonic overexpression of MT. Thus, overexpression of MT-I does not significantly protect against either of these cadmium-induced effects on fertility.
  • 机译 超越Dobris:一个大陆致力于改变
    摘要:In June 1991, 36 of Europe's environment ministers and deputies met at Czechoslovakia's Dobris Castle, near Prague, to discuss the environmental status of their nations. During the unprecedented conference, the ministers called for the preparation of a comprehensive report on Europe's extensive environmental problems. In August 1995, the European Environment Agency Task Force (a branch of the European Commission) published Europe's Environment: The Dobris Assessment, a 676-page review of the continent's environment.
  • 机译 哮喘发作
    • 作者:Elaine Friebele;
    • 刊名:Environmental Health Perspectives
    • 1996年第1期
    摘要:Breathing is something that most people take for granted. Without giving it a thought, we pull an invisible stream of gases, aerosols, particles, microbes, pollen, and dust into our lungs with every breath. But not everyone breathes easily. For the more than 14 million Americans with asthma, breathing becomes difficult when sensitive airways are inflamed and constricted. The number of people with asthma increased by 42% in the last decade, according to a recent report by the Centers for Disease Control. Not only is asthma becoming more prevalent, but it is also more severe. According to the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, the number of people who die of asthma jumped 58% between 1979 and 1992. Emergency room visits and hospital admissions for asthma are increasing. Children, ethnic minorities, and the urban poor are at the greatest risk. Researchers suspect that a variety of factors such as air contaminants and heightened exposure to aeroallergens in airtight homes trigger bouts of asthma or cause chronic airway inflammation that may lead to permanent lung dysfunction.
  • 机译 尘埃中的危险
    • 作者:Leslie Lang;
    • 刊名:Environmental Health Perspectives
    • 1996年第1期
    摘要:In contrast to widely held images of urban pollution and blight the persistence of an "agrarian myth" that associates life on the farm with healthful, bucolic joys ignores a fundamental reality: agriculture can be a dangerous occupation. In agriculture, a large proportion of acute traumatic injury and death comes from accidents involving farm machinery. Farm equipment also inflicts chronic injuries upon workers including noise-induced hearing loss and vibration-associated diseases of the back. Agrichemicals pose a risk for direct toxicity and possibly cancer. Dermatologic diseases, including cancers, among farmers and farm workers are often linked to ultraviolet light exposure, contact dermatitis, and zoonosls. But the most prevalent agricultural hazard involves the respiratory tract. Says Marc B. Schenker, medical epidemiologist and director of the Center for Occupational and Environmental Health at the University of California, Davis, "Despite this litany of significant occupational health problems, respiratory disease remains one of the most common and important issues for those working in the agricultural field." Indeed, occupational mortality studies from the United States, England, and Scandinavia reveal higher respiratory disease mortality rates among farmers than the general population.
  • 机译 沙门氏菌遗传毒性剂和啮齿类致癌物之间的异常不确定性:非遗传毒性致癌物和遗传毒性非致癌物
    • 作者:Kunie Yoshikawa;
    • 刊名:Environmental Health Perspectives
    • 1996年第1期
    摘要:According to current data, the capacity to cause nonprogrammed or unscheduled cell proliferation in target tissues, a common characteristic of chemical carcinogens, may play a more important role in the development of tumors than does genotoxicity. This paper provides strong support for the validity of this conclusion. Ames-negative nongenotoxicants may be considered to be carcinogenic primarily because of their ability to induce cell proliferation in animal tissues and organs. In addition, such nongenotoxic carcinogens may also provide latent and modest DNA (equivocal) modifications that never lead to Ames-positive events. Conversely, noncarcinogenesis by Ames-positive agents is likely to be linked to a lack of stimulation of cell division. Nongenotoxic and genotoxic carcinogens rely on both cell proliferation and equivocal DNA modification for their full carcinogenkity. Such equivocal DNA modifications do not appear to be formed by tumor promoters. The role of cell proliferation may provide a favorable milieu for the occurrence of genetic instability, give rise to selective "apoptosis-resistant abnormal cells," and then affect clonal expansion of these cells. Therefore, understanding the influence of nongenotoxic and genotoxic carcinogens on cell proliferation capability is a key point in determining the mechanisms of chemical carcinogenesis. Considering the contradictory and common features of genotoxicants and carcinogens, early detection of nonprogrammed cell proliferation is die most effective approach to predict human and rodent carcinogenicity.
  • 机译 金属工业中N-亚硝基二乙醇胺暴露工人的生物监测
    摘要:Biological monitoring of occupational hazards was performed in workers using cutting fluids containing N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA). The study involved a group of 25 male subjects from some metal factories in central Italy who used cutting fluids with an NDELA content of ≥ 5 mg/l (high-exposure group) and a group of 37 males exposed to cutting fluids with an NDELA content < 5 mg/l (low-exposure group). For comparison, we recruited a control group consisting of 37 subjects living in the same area. For all subjects, internal dose (urinary excretion of NDELA, mutagens, and thioethers), early biological effects (sister chromatid exchanges in blood peripheral lymphocytes), and urinary excretion of D-glucaric acid (DGA) as an endpoint product in the glucuronidation pathway were assessed. The results showed that only the workers using cutting fluids with NDELA concentrations of ≥ 5 mg/l excreted trace amounts of NDELA in their urine. Urine excretion of mutagens was similar in the two exposure groups and in the controls. High-exposure subjects had a higher mean value of urinary thioethers than low-exposure and control subjects, but no differences were found in urinary DGA or lymphocyte sister chromatid exchange among the three groups. Smoking status increased the mean values of all the biomarkers, and coffee drinking was associated with urinary DGA excretion.
  • 机译 磷脂酶A_2参与多氯联苯活化中性粒细胞的机制。
    摘要:Aroclor 1242, a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), activates neutrophils to produce superoxide anion (O_2~-) by a mechanism that involves phospholipase C-dependent hydrolysis of membrane phosphoinositides; however, subsequent signal transduction mechanisms are unknown. We undertook this study to determine whether phospholipase A_2-dependent release of arachidonic acid is involved in PCB-induced O_2~- production. We measured O_2~- production in vitro in glycogen-elicited, rat neutrophils in the presence and absence of the inhibitors of phospholipase A_2: quinacrine, 4-bromophenacyl bromide (BPB), and manoalide. All three agents significantly decreased the amount of O_2~- detected during stimulation of neutrophils with Aroclor 1242. Similar inhibition occurred when neutrophils were activated with the classical stimuli, formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) or phorbol myristate acetate. The effects of BPB and manoalide were not a result of cytotoxicity or other nonspecific effects, although data suggest that quinacrine is an O_2~- scavenger. Significant release of ~3H-arachidonic acid preceded O_2~- production in neutrophils stimulated with Aroclor 1242 or fMLP. Manoalide, at a concentration that abolished O_2~- production, also inhibited the release of ~3H-arachidonate. Aspirin, zileuton, or WEB 2086 did not affect Aroclor 1242-induced O_2~- production, suggesting that eicosanoids and platelet-activating factor are not needed for neutrophil activation by PCBs. Activation of phospholipase A_2 and O_2~- production do not appear to involve the Ah receptor because a congener with low affinity, but not one with high affinity for this receptor, stimulated the release of arachidonic acid and O_2~-. These data suggest that Aroclor 1242 stimulates neutrophils to produce O_2~-by a mechanism that involves phospholipase A_2-dependent release of arachidonic acid.
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