摘要：The concentrations of heavy metals were determined in roadside soil and grass from different locations in Ibadan metropolis and two highways. The levels found (in μg g~1) were: Cr-20.6-104; Mn-86.2-355; Fe-137-4455; Ni-10.9-115;Cu-8.94-80.5; Z-43.5-213; Cd-0.18-2.70; and Pb-205-730. There was no significant difference (P<0.10) between the mean concentrations of Thee metals in the high and low traffic density areas suggesting that sources other than the motorcar Also influence the levels of these metals in roadside soil and grass.
摘要：Background radionuclide concentrations in surface soil (5 cm loop) across Kuwait were measured by gamma spectroscopy with a HPGe detector. These measurements were made as part of program for assessment of radiation doses from natural sources for the Kuwait population. The sampling program provided background information at 83 sites in different geological formations. The nationwide average concentrations in Bq/kg were as follows: for ~40K-332 ±104 Bq/dg (arithmetic 50), for ~226Ra-118±4.0 Bq/kg, for ~238U-13.±5.0 Bq/kg, for ~232Th-10.0±3.4 Bq/kg, and for ~137Cs-2.6±2.6 Bq/kg.
摘要：Daily water quality data from six U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) monitoring stations along the Great Miami River and digital land use/land cover and elevation data for the same watershed were Analyzed. The validity of using electrolytic conductivity as a water quality indicator was examined By correlating conductivity with 199 other water quality variables, 60 of which were significantly Correlated with conductivity. Positive correlations existed between conductivity and dissolved Materials. Negative correlations existed between conductivity and insoluble or suspended materials.
摘要：The development and use of the cigarette equivalent (CE) concept for estimating exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is reviewed. CE is a legitimate conceptual device for reporting and comparing ETS exposures. However, extension of the CE concept to predicting potential increases in health risk is fraught with numerous assumptions and is, therefore, not as often used or as well accepted. Mathematically, the CE concept relates the magnitude of a nonsmoker's ETS exposure to the magnitude of mainstream smoke inhaled by a smoker.
摘要：the environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) yield of selected analytes was determined for the 50 top- selling U.S. cigarette brand styles (1991) and the University of Kentucky Research cigarette, KIR4F. ETS was generated by smokers in an environmental test chamber. Analytes determined Included real-time measurements of nicotine, 3-ethenylpyridine, respirable suspended particles (RSP), carbon monoxide, and total hydrocarbons by flame ionization detector response (FID). Real-time RSP values were determined independently by a piezoelectric balance and real-time Aerosol monitor (RAM).
摘要：Concentrations of Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Mu, and Fe in soft tissue and byssal threads of Perna perna from the Gulf of Aden, Yemen, were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometric (AAS) method. Significant inter-regional differences in the metal concentrations studied in both soft tissue and byssus were identified. The concentration of Cd was an order of magnitude greater in soft tissue than in Byssal threads. Statistically significant correlations (p<0.01, p>0.05) between concentration of selected metals were observed.
摘要：A survey of the environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) generated by cigarettes from 11 countries was performed. The countries included: the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hong Kong, italy Malaysia, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States. The six leading brand styles From each country were smoked in an environmental test chamber. Concentration of the gas phase ETS components CO, NO, NO_2, nicotine, 3-ethenylpyridine, myosmine, and total volatile organic Compounds (TVOC) were measured.
摘要：This paper examines the manner in which assessments of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) are used in epidemiological studies seeking to establish an association between such exposure and diseases such as lung cancer. Two such studies are described. A review of the literature shows that exposure to ETS is not accurately measured by subjective evaluations communicated via questionnaire. The inaccuracy is evident in situations where recent exposure is being measured and may reasonably be expected to be even greater when long-term exposure is at issue.
摘要：the concentrations of total organic carbon (TOC), total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and petroleum-related heavy metals were determined in sediment samples collected from eight stations along the coastal area in Kuwait. The TOC concentrations ranged from 5.21 to 24.89 mg/g dry sediment. The TPH concentrations were variable and ranged from 7.43 to 458.61 μg/g dry sediment. The highest TPH concentrations were found near the Shuaiba Industrial Area and in the Shuwaikh Port where both industrial and boating activities and land-based wastewater discharges are most Common.
摘要：A cost-benefit analysis of pollution control equipment installed to contain dust emissions was undertaken in the Indian Cement Industry. An assessment was also made in large scale cement plants with production capacity greater than 200 Mg/d to examine the level of compliance with emission regulations stipulated by the Central Pollution Control Board. The pay-back periods for different dust control equipment were worked out. For 300, 600, 1200, 1500, and 3000 Mg/d capacity cement plants, the following economic comparisons were made on the basis of erection costs and pay-back periods: electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and fabric filter(FF) for kiln, cement mill, and coal mill; multiclone for clinker cooler; and fabric filter for packing section.
摘要：The purpose of this study was to investigate adsorption of trace organic compounds from drinking water by a synthetic resin. In the batch experiments, the treatment efficiency was nearly in- discriminate at every point selected for the resin addition. The adsorption performance could be significantly improved using a high dosage of resin, pH about 8.0 low temperature, and high initial concentration of the organic compounds. In the column experiments, the single column study indicated that the breakthrough time (BT) and volume of the resin bed increased with decreasing flow rate.
摘要：Two simple methods were used to estimate the annual N and P loadings to Mt. Hope Bay, a coastal water body on the Massachusetts-Rholde Island border. One method was based on land use and information on point source discharges. The second method relied on limited data for the single large tributary to the Bay along with the same point source estimates used in the first method. Estimates of annual N loading from both methods were within 25/100-30/100 of each other while those For P were inconsistent, perhaps reflecting more complex dynamics for P in the fresh water system.
摘要：Effects of disc rotational speed (ω) and disc submergence (Ω) on the system performance of a four- stage anaerobic rotating biological contactor (AnRBC)for treating high-strength organic wastewater were investigated to establish optimal operating conditions. Results of tracer study showed that the flow was more mixed when the AnRBC system was operated at a higher ω or at a lower Ω. In the steady-state operating conditions, the stage chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency increased as ωincreased in the range of 0 - 12 rpm.
摘要：Air samples from 19 Kuwaiti residences were collected on tenax-TA sorbent cartridges and analyzed using adsorption/thermal desorption coupled with flame ionization detector/gas chromato- graphy. The study included the identification of around 47 target compounds using the above technique. With the exception of Freons, the target compounds were usually detected at 100 to 5000 μg/m~3 in indoor and outdoor air samples. Organics identified were aromatics, and aromatic and aliphatic halogeated hydrocarbons,. The objective of this study was to identify and measure the volatile Organic Compounds as well as to identify the sources wherever possible.
摘要：presonal monitoring over a 24-h period was performed using over 190 subjects divided into two distinct groups, one for housewives and one for office workers. Questionnaire surveys were con- ducted in addition to determinations for respirable suspended particles (RSP), environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) particles, nictine, 3-ethenylpyridine, and saliva cotinine. The highest median levels of RSP, ETS particles, and nicotine were measured for subjects working in smoking workplaces. However, workers living in smoking households were more exposed outside working hours since More time was sent outside the workplace.
摘要：The level of airborne microbes in hospitals is unknown in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). An investigation of the quantity an quality of airborne microbes in Al-Ain hospital, UAE, was carried out to establish standards for future reference. Using a bacteria mechanical air sampler, microbiological samples were collected from different hospital units. The bacterial and fungal isolates were enumerated and identified. The variables were coded, entered, and processed by the statistical packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) with p<0.05 considered the cutoff point.
摘要：This paper considers the effects of operating variables on SO_2 emission in staged combustion with a stainless steel combustor 2 m high with a 0.3 x 0.3 m cross section. Fluidizing air was supplied through a multihole distributor. The experiments were carried out for fluidizing velocities of 1-2 m/s, bed temperature of 830-880 deg.C, 20-40/100 excess air, and bed particle sizes of 0.313 and 0.655 mm. The bed temperature, fluidizing velocity, and excess air level had a significant effect on SO_2 emissions reduction during staged combustion.
摘要：The purpose of this study was to estimate the contributions of various source to the suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the atmosphere of urban residential, suburban, and industrial areas of korea. In this work, the techniques of principal component analysis (PCA) and stepwise multiple regression analysis were employed to identify and quantify the manor sources which influence the ambient SPM. The mass contributions of the different sources were estimated by the calculation of absolute principal component scores (APCS), and a subsequent stepwise regression of the SPM concentrations using the APCS.
摘要：There are many organic pollutants in the monitoring wells at Taichung sanitary landfill. The objectives of this study were to understand the leachate transport phenomena in this specific site, to identify the parameters, and to simulate the mathematical transport model of organic maters of leachate plume by SEFTRAN. The model uses the Galerkin's finite element method and its mechanism includes convection, dispersion, retardation, and biological decay. Consequently, this study investigated not only on the parameters of convection but also on the parameters of dispersion, retardation, and decay.
摘要：An interview method with specific questions concerning sleep, psychological disturbances, and behavior was applied to a sample of 413 residents in the center of Belgrade. In the noisy area (Leq>65 dB (A)), there were 253 interviewed inhabitant, and 160 interviews were performed in the control zone (Leq<55 dB(A)). Noise annoyance was measured on a ten-graded numeric scale. The weinstein's Noise Sensitivity Scale was used to assess general sensitivity to noise, personality Traits of extroversion and neuroticism were investigated with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire.