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    Artificial intelligence for engineering design, analysis and manufacturing

  • 中文名称: 用于工程设计,分析和制造的人工智能
  • 刊频: 0.636
  • ISSN: 0890-0604
  • 出版社: -
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  • 机译 基于手势的系统,用于下一代自然直观的界面
    摘要:We present a novel and trainable gesture-based system for next-generation intelligent interfaces. The system requires a non-contact depth sensing device such as an RGB-D (color and depth) camera for user input. The camera records the user's static hand pose and palm center dynamic motion trajectory. Both static pose and dynamic trajectory are used independently to provide commands to the interface. The sketches/symbols formed by palm center trajectory is recognized by the Support Vector Machine classifier. Sketch/symbol recognition process is based on a set of geometrical and statistical features. Static hand pose recognizer is incorporated to expand the functionalities of our system. Static hand pose recognizer is used in conjunction with sketch classification algorithm to develop a robust and effective system for natural and intuitive interaction. To evaluate the performance of the system user studies were performed on multiple participants. The efficacy of the presented system is demonstrated using multiple interfaces developed for different tasks including computer-aided design modeling.
  • 机译 监督机器学习的零件分类方法
    摘要:In this paper, we report on a data analysis process for the automated classification of mechanical components. In particular, here, we describe, how to implement a machine learning system for the automated classification of parts belonging to several sub-categories. We collect models that are typically used in the mechanical industry, and then we represent each object by a collection of features. We illustrate how to set-up a supervised multi-layer artificial neural network with an ad-hoc classification schema. We test our solution on a dataset formed by 2354 elements described by 875 features and spanned among 15 sub-categories. We state the accuracy of classification in terms of average area under ROC curves and the ability to classify 606 unknown 3D objects by similarity coefficients. Our parts' classification system outperforms a classifier based on the Light Field Descriptor, which, as far as we know, actually represents the gold standard for the identification of most types of 3D mechanical objects.
  • 机译 量化参数设计中的多样性:可能指标的比较
    摘要:To be useful for architects and related designers searching for creative, expressive forms, performance-based digital tools must generate a diverse range of design solutions. This gives the designer flexibility to choose from a number of high-performing designs based on aesthetic preferences or other priorities. However, there is no single established method for measuring diversity in the context of computational design, especially in the field of architecture. This paper explores different metrics for quantifying diversity in parametric design, which is an increasingly common digital approach to early-stage exploration, and tests how human users perceive these diversity measurements. It first provides a review of existing methodologies for measuring diversity and describes how they can be adapted for parametrically formulated design spaces. This paper then tests how these different metrics align with human perception of design diversity through an online visual survey. Finally, it offers a quantitative comparison between the different methods and a discussion of their attributes and potential applications. In general, the comparison indicates that at the level of diversity difference that becomes visually meaningful to humans, the measurable difference between metrics is small. This paper informs future researchers, developers, and designers about the measurement of diversity in parametric design, and can stimulate further studies into the perception of diversity within sets of design options, as well as new design methodologies that combine architectural novelty and performance.
  • 机译 学生和审阅者在本科建筑设计评论中使用类比,隐喻和比喻
    摘要:This study investigates the use of similarities in the form of analogy, metaphor, and simile by students and reviewers in an undergraduate architectural design review. In contrast to studies conducted in vitro settings, this study emphasizes the importance of studying analogies, metaphors, and similes in a natural setting. All similarity relationships were coded according to their type, the level of expertise, range, frequency, goal, value judgment, and depth. The results indicate that analogies, metaphors, and similes were used spontaneously and without any difficulty by both reviewers and students. Reviewers, however, were almost twice as likely to evoke similarities. Metaphor was the most frequently used similarity relationship among the three. It was found that there was a significant relationship between the level of expertise and type of similarity, with students more likely to use analogies and less likely to use similes. It was also found that goal is the most important factor, with a significant relation to all other variables, and that embodiment is often invoked in both students' and reviewers' metaphors. We conclude that design education should take full advantage of students' natural ability to benefit from similarity relationships.
  • 机译 IM-sgi:用于形状语法实现的接口模型
    摘要:Information technologies are a driving force for progress in the design field, allowing new modes of creativity. However, most of the existing computational design tools are focused on the latest stages of the design process and especially directed to drafting operations. Conceptual design tools that support the designer in the creative and inventive early stages of the design project are still in their early development. Shape grammars (SG) were introduced by George Stiny in the 1970s, allowing the generation of designs according to a set of predefined rules. SG computational implementations have the potential to answer the need for tools that can assist designers, architects, and artists in the creative process, offering design alternatives, stimulating new ideas and encouraging the search for new design generation processes. Acknowledging this potential, a user-friendly interface seems essential for the adoption of these tools. Taking Scott Chase's interaction model as background, the aim of the present investigation is to define guidelines and begin to design a graphical-user interface for SG implementations. Inspection methods of human-computer interaction (HCI) were used to analyze existing SG implementations and understand usability issues. Subsequently, HCI ergonomic criteria for interface evaluation were adapted to establish guidelines for the design of an SG implementation interface, called IM-sqi. These guidelines take into account different user groups, adjustable interaction modes for each user group, and the nature of each task performed by the user.
  • 机译 使用多主体学习对多学科设计建模
    摘要:Complex engineered systems design is a collaborative activity. To design a system, experts from the relevant disciplines must work together to create the best overall system from their individual components. This situation is analogous to a multiagent system in which agents solve individual parts of a larger problem in a coordinated way. Current multiagent models of design teams, however, do not capture this distributed aspect of design teams - instead either representing designers as agents which control all variables, measuring organizational outcomes instead of design outcomes, or representing different aspects of distributed design, such as negotiation. This paper presents a new model which captures the distributed nature of complex systems design by decomposing the ability to control design variables to individual computational designers acting on a problem with shared constraints. These designers are represented as a multiagent learning system which is shown to perform similarly to a centralized optimization algorithm on the same domain. When used as a model, this multiagent system is shown to perform better when the level of designer exploration is not decayed but is instead controlled based on the increase of design knowledge, suggesting that designers in multidisciplinary teams should not simply reduce the scope of design exploration over time, but should adapt based on changes in their collective knowledge of the design space. This multiagent system is further shown to produce better-performing designs when computational designers design collaboratively as opposed to independently, confirming the importance of collaboration in complex systems design.
  • 机译 使用EEG分割设计方案
    摘要:Design protocol data analysis methods form a well-known set of techniques used by design researchers to further understand the conceptual design process. Verbal protocols are a popular technique used to analyze design activities. However, verbal protocols are known to have some limitations. A recurring problem in design protocol analysis is to segment and code protocol data into logical and semantic units. This is usually a manual step and little work has been done on fully automated segmentation techniques. Physiological signals such as electroencephalograms (EEG) can provide assistance in solving this problem. Such problems are typical inverse problems that occur in the line of research. A thought process needs to be reconstructed from its output, an EEG signal. We propose an EEG-based method for design protocol coding and segmentation. We provide experimental validation of our methods and compare manual segmentation by domain experts to algorithmic segmentation using EEG. The best performing automated segmentation method (when manual segmentation is the baseline) is found to have an average deviation from manual segmentations of 2 s. Furthermore, EEG-based segmentation can identify cognitive structures that simple observation of design protocols cannot. EEG-based segmentation does not replace complex domain expert segmentation but rather complements it. Techniques such as verbal protocols are known to fail in some circumstances. EEG-based segmentation has the added feature that it is fully automated and can be readily integrated in engineering systems and subsystems. It is effectively a window into the mind.
  • 机译 使用自组织地图和空间统计数据进行状态评估的特征评估和选择
    摘要:This paper presents a novel approach to sensor-based feature evaluation and selection using a self-organizing map and spatial statistics as a combined technique applied to tool condition monitoring of the turning process. This approach takes advantage of the unique features of unsupervised neural networks combined with spatial statistics to perform analyses into the contributions of the different sensor-based features, carrying large quantities of noise, to achieve a classification of tool wear and a quantitative measure of each feature's suitability. This method does not assume a prior direct correlation between features avoiding misconstructions inherent to common approaches that assume that only obviously correlated features should be considered for condition monitoring. Instead, and taking advantage of neural networks ability to perform non-linear modeling, it has allowed a prior modeling of the process and then analyzed each feature's contribution toward classification. It was found that some of the commonly used features have proven to have a significant contribution to the classification of cutting tool wear, whereas others adversely affect classification performance. Further, it is demonstrated that the proposed combined technique can be used extensively to quantitatively evaluate the contribution of different features toward system monitoring in the presence of noisy data.
  • 机译 危机智能系统(CCS)–跟踪危机管理的经验以提供决策支持
    摘要:During a crisis situation, the ability of emergency department to take reliable and quick decisions is the main feature that defines the success or failure of this organization in the course of its crisis management. Decision makers spend time on identifying the decisions that will be taken for the whole of the crisis management, and on anticipating the preparation of these decisions, ensuring that they have time to properly prepare all decisions to be taken and, be able to implement them as fast as possible. However, the context and the characteristics of the crisis make the decision process complicated because there is no specific methodology to anticipate these decisions and properly manage collaboration with the other protagonists. There is also the pressure of time, a significant stress and, the emotional impact on the decision maker that lead to losing objectivity in decision making. We understand so that the right decision will be greatly facilitated and enhanced by the development of an adequate tool and process for decision-making. This tool must respect methods of the emergency department considered, and highlight the importance of experience feedback referencing to past cases, especially success and failures. We propose in this paper, software in order to handle experience feedback as a support for decision-making in crisis management Crisis Clever System. Several dimensions are considered in this study, from one side: organization, communication and problem-solving activities and from the other side the presentation and finding of experience feedback thanks to an analogy technique.
  • 机译 创新与业务可持续性(IBS):来自印度制药业(IPI)的经验证据
    摘要:The aim of our study is to investigate how innovation is taking place through different research and development (R&D) activities and to establish a link between innovation and business sustainability in the context of Indian pharmaceutical companies. Our study is based on the secondary data. Sample data of 37 Indian pharmaceutical companies listed on the National Stock Exchange have been used based on the stratified sampling technique. For empirical analysis we have performed descriptive statistics, correlation matrix, and panel regression analysis as statistical techniques with the help of STATA 12.0 statistical package. R-2 value can predict 100 and 98.20% variability in return on assets (ROA) and return on equity (ROE) in model 1 and model 2, respectively. In model 1, the value of c(2) is 1.48 and its corresponding p value is 0.00 (<0.05) which means that the model is a good fit for interpretation. R&D intensity is having a positive effect on ROA and the effect is statistically significant at 1% level. Advertising and marketing intensity, capital intensity, leverage ratio and operating expenditure to the total assets ratio are having positive effect on ROA but the effect is not statistically significant. In model 2, the value of F statistics is 8025.62 and its corresponding p value is 0.00 which is <0.05. It means that the model is a good fit for study. R&D intensity is having a positive effect on ROE and the effect is statistically significant at 1% level. Advertising and marketing intensity, capital intensity and operating expenditure to the total assets ratio have positive effect on ROE and the effect is statistically significant at 1% level. Leverage ratio is having a negative effect on ROE but the effect is statically significant at 10% level.
  • 机译 从组织模型设计本体的方法:应用到创造力研讨会
    摘要:Innovation and creativity are a mandatory for companies who wish to stay competitive. In order to promote an inventive dynamic, it implies to set up tools, habits, and an adapted environment to foster creativity. Creativity is the wealth of companies that should be valorized. To promote creativity, companies implement creativity workshops that gather people with various roles and expertise exchange and create knowledge to solve collectively open-ended engineering problems. However, group dynamics or facilitation can make the wrong decision and make the creative problem-solving unfruitful. The aim of our research project is to create a digital system to manage and valorize knowledge during creativity workshops. To design this system, we need to formalize the knowledge domain of creative workshops. The ontologies are used for decades to structure and manage information and knowledge in different domains. However, methodologies to design these ontologies are either hardly reproducible or not oriented to extract knowledge from organization. This article describes a methodology based on an organizational modeling to build ontologies. We will illustrate our approach by designing an ontology that models knowledge of creativity workshops.
  • 机译 特刊:知识工程与管理应用于可持续发展与创新
  • 机译 在成熟的公司中实现重大创新:UX-FFE模型的实证研究
    摘要:The ability to successfully conduct radical innovations is mandatory for mature industrial companies that want to remain competitive in the global market. This ability relies on several ingredients, namely: (1) the structuring of the innovation process; (2) managerial principles; (3) methodological tools; (4) the presence of a culture of innovation. This paper reports about the impact of applying the User eXperience-Fuzzy Front End (UX-FFE) model, which brings together the systemic innovation process with the social, economical, and methodological aspects on the outcomes of the innovation process. Firstly, it appears that the operational performance of the upstream innovation process relies on the quality of the social context, intrinsic to the group of co-creators, corresponding to the reported perceived experience. Secondly, the UX-FFE model application, therefore, allows optimizing the upstream innovation process performance. Indeed, we argue that the evaluation of the co-creators perceived experience brings new opportunities to optimize the operational performance of the upstream innovation process. The first part of this paper presents deeper a theoretical model, named UX-FFE, which combines a UX approach with an upstream innovation process (FFE). The main interest of this UX-FFE model is that it allows evaluating the social aspect of the upstream innovation process, which may be detrimental to the success of radical innovation projects in mature companies. The second part presents the results of previous experiments that validated the model. The results allow the design of an instrument dedicated to the evaluation of the user experience of co-creators in the ideation stage. Finally, the third part reports about the experimentation of the UX-FFE in a mature company. Results present the impact of the co-creators' experience on the performance of radical innovation projects.
  • 机译 通过组织文化的角度分析知识管理系统采用情况的框架
    • 作者:Tounkara, Thierno;
    • 刊名:Artificial intelligence for engineering design, analysis and manufacturing
    • 2019年第2期
    摘要:Although, the knowledge management (KM)-culture research has helped to validate the importance of cultural values for companies' KM initiatives and provided insights into some important values, it still lacks frameworks and analysis outlining how specific types of cultural values might relate to Knowledge Management system (KMS) adoption and subsequent outcomes. In this paper, we provide a three-dimensional framework to help managers articulate how culture affects their unit's ability to create, transfer, and apply knowledge through KMS use. To illustrate the application of the framework, we also present an exploratory case study we have performed in an international organization in the area of development assistance and capacity development.
  • 机译 生态创新和知识管理:中小企业的问题和组织挑战
    摘要:The proposed methodology is based on a (global and multi-criteria) simplified environmental but thorough assessment. In this stage we do not directly give the solution to designers. It will therefore translate the results of evaluation design axes, but in general, the lines proposed are inconsistent or contradictory. Therefore, what we find is a compromise given to the solution. The challenge we are facing in an industrial reality is that one should not go for a compromise solution. TRIZ (Teorija Reshenija Izobretateliskih Zadatch) or the theory of solving inventive problems, in the field, will be reformulated and go through the contradiction matrix and then intervene with the principles of interpretation resolutions to give possible solutions. To assist small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in their product development, the objective of this paper is to propose a methodological approach named Ecatriz, that will allow us to achieve our eco-innovative goal. The applicability of this method is justified by the many contradictions in the choices in a study of the life cycle. As a starting point, a qualitative multi-criteria matrix will allow the prioritization of all impacts on the environment. A customized implementation of the inventive TRIZ (Teorija Reshenija Izobretateliskih Zadatch, Russian acronym for theory of solving inventive problems) principles will help us choose eco-innovative solutions. To that end, we have created a new approach named Ecatriz (ecological approach TRIZ), based on a new contradiction matrix. It was tested in various contexts, such as the 24 h of Innovation competition and eco-innovative patents.
  • 机译 通过危机情况下的经验反馈来管理压力
    摘要:A crisis is a complex situation, which actors have some difficulties to manage it. They are under stress to deal with problems that they cannot predict consequences. The human conditions (familial and life) and, the influence of the environment (politic, economic, media) pushes the actors to lose control of the crisis situation. The question we face in this paper is: is it possible to predict the impact of the stress in this type of situation? Our main hypothesis to answer is to represent experience feedback using knowledge management. To model the crisis management as systemic system emphasizing regulation loops, and the collaboration activity by showing the dimension of the communication, coordination, and cooperation. This modeling is illustrated in a terrorist attack situation in Algeria. To predict stress consequences, fuzzy set principle is adopted, based on experience feedback and situations modeling, as a generator of alternative states given a stress event.
  • 机译 通过预测热水生产来节省能源:确定要点,以实现有效的统计模型集成
    摘要:This work aims to evaluate the energy savings that can be achieved in domestic hot water (DHW) production using consumption forecasting through statistical modeling. It uses our forecast algorithm and aims at investigating how it can improve energy efficiency depending on the system configuration. Especially, the influence of the DHW production type used is evaluated as well as the water tank insulation. To that end, real consumption measurements are used for model training. Then simulations are run on using TRNSYS software to compute the total energy consumption of DHW production systems over 1 year. Simulations are also based on real consumption measurements for realistic results. To appraise the energy savings, we compared simulations that consider either no forecast (reactive control), perfect forecast (to estimate the control ability to consider forecast), or the forecast provided by our algorithm. The measurements and simulations are run on 26 different but real dwellings to assess results variability. Several system configurations are also compared with varying thermal insulation indices for a complete benchmark of the approach so that an overall performance of the system and the anticipation strategy could be evaluated.
  • 机译 通过自然语言处理进行系统的实践活动评估社区:应用于研究项目
    摘要:Community of Practice (CoP) efficiency evaluation is a great deal in research. Indeed, having the possibility to know if a given CoP is successful or not is essential to better manage it over time. The existing approaches for efficiency evaluation are difficult and time-consuming to put into action on real CoPs. They require either to evaluate subjective constructs making the analysis unreliable, either to work out a knowledge interaction matrix that is difficult to set up. However, these approaches build their evaluation on the fact that a CoP is successful if knowledge is exchanged between the members. It is the case if there are some interactions between the actors involved in the CoP. Therefore, we propose to analyze these interactions through the exchanges of emails thanks to Natural Language Processing. Our approach is systematic and semi-automated. It requires the e-mails exchanged and the definition of the speech-acts that will be retrieved. We apply it on a real project-based CoP: the SEPOLBE research project that involves different expertise fields. It allows us to identify the CoP core group and to emphasize learning processes between members with different backgrounds (Microbiology, Electrochemistry and Civil engineering).
  • 机译 基于人工智能的蒙特卡洛轮胎凹槽空气动力学数值模拟,采用计算流体力学
    摘要:In the current work, the effects of design (groove depth and groove width) and operational (temperature and velocity) parameters on aerodynamic performance parameters (coefficient of drag and coefficient of lift) of an isolated passenger car tire have been investigated. The study is conducted by using neural network-based Monte-Carlo analysis on computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The computer experiments are designed to obtain the causal relationship between tire design, operational, and aerodynamic performance parameters. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations-based Realizable K-epsilon model has been employed to analyze the variations in flow patterns around an isolated tire. The design parameters are varied over wide range and full factorial design, while considering temperature and velocity is completely explored to draw conclusive results. The multi-layer perceptron type neural network with the back-propagation algorithm is trained to map any non-linearity in causal relationships. The sensitivity analysis is performed to find the relationship between control variables and performance indicators. The importance of control variable is determined by both sensitivity and significance analyses and the paired interaction analysis is performed between selected control variables to find the interactive behavior of corresponding variables. The design parameter of groove width with 6.8% and 41% reduction in drag and lift coefficient, respectively, and conventionally overlooked operational parameter of velocity with 4% and 35% impact on drag and lift coefficient, respectively, are found to be the most significant variables. The air trapped between the longitudinal grooves and the road is found to follow the beam theory. The interaction of the groove depth and width is found to be significant with respect to coefficient of lift based on the air beam concept. The interaction of groove width and velocity is found to be significant with respect to both coefficients of lifts and drag.
  • 机译 用于组装印刷电路板的高效混合组搜索优化器
    摘要:Assembly optimization of printed circuit boards (PCBs) has received considerable research attention because of efforts to improve productivity. Researchers have simplified complexities associated with PCB assembly; however, they have overlooked hardware constraints, such as pick-and-place restrictions and simultaneous pickup restrictions. In this study, a hybrid group search optimizer (HGSO) was proposed. Assembly optimization of PCBs for a multihead placement machine is segmented into three problems: the (1) auto nozzle changer (ANC) assembly problem, (2) nozzle setup problem, and (3) component pick-and-place sequence problem. The proposed HGSO proportionally applies a modified group search optimizer (MGSO), random-key integer programming, and assigned number of nozzles to an ANC to solve the component picking problem and minimize the number of nozzle changes, and the place order is treated as a traveling salesman problem. Nearest neighbor search is used to generate an initial place order, which is then improved using a 2-opt method, where chaos local search and a population manager improve efficiency and population diversity to minimize total assembly time. To evaluate the performance of the proposed HGSO, real-time PCB data from a plant were examined and compared with data obtained by an onsite engineer and from other related studies. The results revealed that the proposed HGSO has the lowest total assembly time, and it can be widely employed in general multihead placement machines.
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